Zero Carbon Report

Zero Carbon Report

Order Description

1, the subject is Energy Management. 2, This is a Report. 3, I will upload you detailed instructions, stick on them please. The ‘CW1 Requirement’ file is the

requirement of the report, and other files are references and class materials.

School of Health, Sport and Bioscience: Application for School Research Ethics Approval
A. Applicant Details
Title of Programme of Study: Bachelor of Science sports coaching
Project Supervisor(s): Dr Nick Bourne
Student Name(s) and number(s): Danny Harper u1120964
UEL Email address (one key contact only):

B. Project Details
Title of Project: Test-retest reliability of short and medium-length dribbling and training intervention in soccer.
Duration of Project Primary Research (MUST NOT start before ethical approval has been achieved):                        From – November 2014

To – April 2015
Project background/rationale: (no more than 200 words)
Test-retest reliability refers to how consistent results are performed from the same test. For an idea that seems straight forward, calculating reliability and

interpreting findings often are unclear in general but specifically in sport science literature (Streiner & Norman., 1995).
Techniques are the fundamental movements of any sport e.g. turning and shooting in soccer. Performing a skill is the athlete’s individual ability to apply and perform

the right techniques at the right time, with regular success and at the same time using minimal effort. Learning proper dribbling technique allows you to maintain

control of the ball whilst changing direction or speed, keeping close control of the ball is vital when in possession in tight areas or an opposing player is close by,

however when space opens up, the opportunity to take bigger touches and open stride length presents itself so it’s vital you are technically proficient when it comes

down to medium and long distance dribbling technique (Schmidt & Lee., 2013).
In summary two basic dribbling exercises have been chosen to perform as tests and training, in adherence to sport science literature saying the most straight forward

tests often produce the most reliable results from testing.
Schmidt, R., & Lee, T. (2013). Motor Learning and Performance, 5E with Web Study Guide: From Principles to Application. Human Kinetics.
Streiner, D.L., & G.R. Norman. (1995). Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 104–127.
Research Aims:
Review current literature to establish test-retest reliability for two ranges of dribbling (short and medium) in soccer, whilst assessing the effect of a dribbling

training intervention. Produce a method that’s simple and works towards achieving results that best suits the term reliability.
Educational Goals:
Appreciate current literature already published.
Understand and discuss final results collected from the testing.
Understand how to analyse, interpret and collect data using spss.
C. Research Participants Number of participants: 20 – 30
Participant Description outlining main inclusion/exclusion criteria:
20-30 players have been selected to perform the two tests. Players will be selected from the University of East London’s men’s indoor futsal team (first and second

team). Contact has been made to the head coach of the futsal team, and permission has been granted to use the first and second team as test participants (see figure 3

in appendix). The agreement is attached.
Participants must be over the age of 18. Participation information and consent forms will be passed out to each participant explain what and why these tests and

training are going ahead.
All participants must have completed a satisfactory Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR Q), outlining any injury concerns that may prevent them from taking

How will potential participants be identified, approached and recruited?
Participants of the study have been recruited by contacting the University of East London’s men’s futsal teams head coach (Trevor Tamatave), which agreement has now

been confirmed by the head coach. An Information letter will be passed on to each participant explaining each test and what will be required to complete each test

along with the dribbling training program.
Are there circumstances where written informed consent will not be sought?     No
Will payment/inducement be offered to participants?                                   No
If yes to any of the above questions, please explain along with actions to be taken.
D. Methodology
Information letters will be passed onto all participants emphasising reasons for the study and making each participant aware of any possible risks and hazards.
20 – 30 participants will be selected to perform each dribbling test and training program.
For the first short dribbling test cones are placed one meter apart totalling ten meters (see figure 1 in appendix).
Participants are required to dribble between each cone using their preferred foot, followed by non-dominant foot, and finally using both feet starting and finishing at

the same point, the second dribbling test is the same as the first but cones are placed 2 meters apart (see figure 2 in appendix).
Times recorded with a stopwatch at the end of each test run.
Tests repeated identically the following week to test reliability in terms of time taken to perform each test.
Participants dribble between each cone using preferred, followed by non-dominant foot, and finally using both feet.
Times recorded at completion of each test run.
Tests repeated identically the following week to test reliability.
After this a training intervention will be in place which will include a training program predominantly consisting of practicing dribbling in and out of cones placed a

short and medium distance apart that will be progressed into more applied dribbling situations. This intervention will last 6 weeks followed by a final test of the two

dribbling tests that took place at the beginning and after week one as previously described.
Methodology Specific Issues
(i) Distress/Risk – if the participant may experience some distress or be put at potential risk, how would this be managed? All participants volunteer to take part in

the study, if at any time they feel under distress or at risk they can withdraw from the study immediately. The researcher and head coach are all first aid qualified,

and dribbling is an enjoyable skill that they are used to. A thorough warm up and cool down will also be performed to help decrease any risk of injury.
(iii) Confidentiality – how will you ensure participant confidentiality is maintained?
By keeping all personal information of each participant saved on a UEL password protected file and computer only accessible to the researcher. Research will be carried

out on UEL property (SportsDock).
(v) Standard protocol – please state the basis and source (including reference) for your method if using a standard protocol (e.g. dosage/weight/volume/intensity

The method this project is based on is one used by (McGregor et al, 1999), uses cones to dribble out and in similar to this project but the differences are this test

starts and finishes at the same point, in contrast to McGregor’s starting and finishing at different points.
McGregor, SJ., Nicholas, CW., Lakomy, HKA., & Williams, C. (1999). The influence of intermittent high-intensity shuttle running and fluid ingestion on the performance

of a soccer skill. J Sports Science, 17, pp. 895-903.
E. Data security and disposal
Please confirm by ticking the relevant boxes the following:-

0 No personal data collected (no need to complete other boxes if this applies).

0 Research data, codes and all identifying information to be kept in separate locked filing cabinets.

1 Access to computer files to be available to research team (normally researcher and supervisor) by password only.

1Access to computer files will not be available to individuals outside the research team.

1 There will be no transfer of data to or via a third party.

1 All electronic data will undergo secure disposal.

1 All hardcopy data will undergo secure disposal.

1 In line with the Data Protection Act (1998), PERSONAL DATA shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes for which it was

collected; please state how long PERSONAL DATA will be retained for: Until May 2015.

Explanation Data collected will be used to complete the research project.

F. Other Documentation
Please include the following documents with your application – tick  • if included
Participant information letter   ?     Consent/assent form(s)  ?    Risk Assessment Form   ?
If applicable:        External agency information letter                             ?
Other agencies/parties information letters                •
Questionnaire/Interview Schedule/Sample questions         •
Permission letter from external agency                                ?
Pre-Test Health Questionnaire                                   ?
Recruitment poster/flyer/advert                                     •

Is ethical clearance required from any other ethics committee?             No
If Yes, please state committee(s).

Declaration (If a group project, all group members’ names should appear)

•    I have read the School guidance notes about application for ethical approval. I am aware of my responsibilities and agree to abide by them.
•    I agree to inform my project supervisor and the School Research Ethics Committee of any changes to the proposed programme.
•    I undertake to abide by accepted ethical principles and appropriate code(s) of practice in carrying out this research.
•    I confirm that my project supervisor has read and agreed to this copy of the ethics application

NAME:     Danny Harper                                 DATE: 17/11/2014              SUPERVISOR NAME: Nick Bourne

(Supervisor must email the Committee Administrator, Claire Daltrey, at to confirm that they have read and approved this application for submission.

Without this approval the application will not be reviewed)

Student Name/Number:
Danny Harper
U1120964    Brief Outline of
Research Study:    Test-retest reliability of two football dribbling exercises.
Specify Location of Primary Research:    UEL SportsDock

(N.B. – if location is not on UEL premises MUST include statement of personal safety below – see Guidance Notes)

Hazards identified    Who might be at risk    Existing controls    Likelihood
H M L    Severity
H M L    Residual risk
1-9    Additional control measures required    Date actioned    Estimated residual risk
Facility conditions (obstacles and floor surface)

Physical injury

Causing injury to others

Personal safety     Researcher and participants

Researcher and participants

Researcher and participants

Researcher and participants     Testing will be done indoors so making sure appropriate space needed to complete each test is taken care of, indoor temperature must

adhere to health and safety guidelines, all obstacles must be put aside and floor surface must be in appropriate condition for dribbling, e.g. no spillages.

Making sure appropriate testing conditions and facilities are this meaning the test set up is safe i.e. appropriate space to complete each test. All

participants will be required to perform a thorough warm up prior to testing and cool down post testing. All participants must have correct clothing and footwear

suitable for performing each test.

Test sensibly and warn participants of potential injury to themselves and to others. Make sure warm up and cool downs are completed.

Next of kin made aware of whereabouts at all times and mobile phones to be kept on person at all times.


L    L



L    1



1    Make sure during testing at all times the policy of SportsDock is taken into consideration, e.g.
All injuries and accidents must be reported immediately to the Duty Manager. Duty Managers are all qualified first aiders.
Customers must check Facilities before use and report any concerns immediately to the manager on duty. I the researcher is first aid at work qualified due to previous

work placements.

L. Low (seldom) [1 point]
M. Medium (frequently) [2 points]
H. High (certain or near certain) [3 points]    Severity
L. Slight (less than 3 days off work) [1 point]
M. Serious (over 3 days off work) [2 points]
H. Major (major injury/death) [3 points]    Residual Risk (Likelihood x Severity)
1 – 2    No action/low priority
3 – 4    Medium
6 – 9    High priority/urgent action    Review Date


Programme of Study:  Bachelor of Science sports coaching

Title of Project: Test-retest reliability of short and medium length dribbling and training intervention in soccer.

Dear Participant,

You are being invited to take part in a research study. Before you decide whether to participate, it is important for you to understand why the research is being done

and what it will involve. Please take time to read the following information carefully and ask us if there is anything that is not clear or if you would like more

information. Take time to decide whether or not you wish to take part.

What is the purpose of the study?
The purpose of this study is to test the reliability of two different soccer dribbling tests, and training to assess your dribbling ability with an aim to improve it.

As a member of the UEL men’s futsal team you will participating in the research, and must have completed a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR Q) prior to

testing to make sure everyone is fit and ready to take part in the two tests

What will I have to do if I take part?
You will be required to complete two tests, a short dribbling exercise where cones are placed one meter apart, and a medium dribbling exercise where cones are placed

two meters apart. In both tests each you will be required to use your non dominant foot, stronger foot, and finally both feet. Your times will be recorded at the end

of each test. You will be retested one week later. After this you will perform a training program to help improve your dribbling technique. At the end of the 6 week

training period you will be tested again for the final time.

What are the possible advantages of taking part?
Advantages of taking part in the study could be improving your self-efficacy when it comes to short and medium distance dribbling. Tests could also advance this

testing procedure which could be used for future research.

What are the possible disadvantages or risks of taking part?
Due to the physical nature of the tests there is a risk of injury to yourself however the risk is low as dribbling is something that you are used to in training and on

match days and a thorough warm up and cool down will be performed.

Do I have to take part?
You are under no obligation to participate in this study. If you do decide to take part, you are free to withdraw at any time without giving a reason. If you do not

take part or withdraw from the study at a later date, it will not disadvantage you.

What will happen to the information?
Your participation in this study and all information collected will be kept strictly confidential. Where necessary, information collected will be coded so that you

cannot be recognised from it. The results of this study will be reported as part of my degree programme and may be further disseminated for scientific benefit. The

results will be available to you on request.

Physical Activity and Readiness Questionnaire

Please read the following questions carefully and tick the appropriate box for each question.  If you have any doubts or queries please ask.

Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor?
Yes    No 

Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity?
Yes    No 

In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity?
Yes    No 

Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness?
Yes    No 

Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity?
Yes    No 

Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for your blood pressure or heart condition?
Yes    No 

Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?
Yes    No 

If you answered NO to all questions
If you answered Par-Q honestly, you have reasonable assurance of your present suitability for:
?    A graduated exercise programme. A gradual increase in proper exercise promotes good fitness development while minimising or eliminating discomfort
?    A fitness appraisal.  Simple or more complex test of fitness

If you answer YES to one or more questions
If you have not recently done so, consult your doctor BEFORE increasing your physical activity or BEFORE a fitness appraisal

Name____________________________ Date______________



Programme of Study: Bachelor of Science sports coaching
Title of Project: Test-retest reliability of short and medium length dribbling and training in soccer.
Project Supervisor: Nick Bourne

Participant’s name:
Participant’s signature:

Researcher’s name DANNY HARPER
Researcher’s signature:
Date: 23/11/2014


Figure 1 – short distance dribbling test

10 M

1 M
Cones are placed 1 meter apart totalling 10 meters.
Participants required to dribble in and out of each cone using un-favoured foot, followed by favoured foot and finally both feet starting and finishing at the same


Figure 2 – Medium distance dribbling test

10 M

2 M

Cones are placed 2 meters apart totalling 10 meters.
Participants required to dribble in and out of each cone using un-favoured foot, followed by favoured foot and finally both feet starting and finishing at the same


Figure 3 – Permission Email from Head coach


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