. “The Music of the Shona in Zimbabwe.”

READ: Kaemmer, John E., 1998. “The Music of the Shona in Zimbabwe.” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Vol 1: Africa, 744-758. (Southern Africa PDF, 1); Brown, Ernest D., 1994. “The Guitar and the mbira: Resilience, Assimilation, and Pan-Africanism in Zimbabwean Music.” World of Music Vol. 36 (2), 73-117. (PDF, 15)


  1. Who are the Shona?
  2. What is the bira? What role does music play at the bira?
  3. What is an mbira?
  4. What is a hosho?

LISTEN “Nhemamusasa” or “Temporary Shelter” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-WpMthq5tU

  1. What are the kushaura and kutsinhira? How are they related to one another?
  2. How are these two parts comparable to the “starter” and “divider” parts in Buganda akadinda music? How are they different?
  3. What general principles of African music does Shona music exhibit?
  4. What is chimurenga? When and why did it originate?

LISTEN “Pidigori” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3w_UiU0XeU/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wIffrV3E2Ns

  1. What instruments supplant the mbira in “Pidigori”?
  2. What traditional Shona vocal technique does Mapfumo employ?

WATCH https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hF2Hstvrfc&t=8s

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