The Foundations of Unequal Justice: Racial Profiling and the Police”

The Foundations of Unequal Justice: Racial Profiling and the Police”


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I have provided the abstract for this paper, which should serve as the direction in which I would like the paper to go.

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“The Foundations of Unequal Justice: Racial Profiling and the Police”


Problem & Purpose
The purpose of this study is to examine the history of racial profiling in American “law enforcement”. From its inception, the system of policing in the United States
was established on racial grounds. As slave owners desired to reclaim escaped slaves, people they viewed to be property as opposed to human beings, they employed
“slave patrols,” which set out to capture and return them. Though the 13th Amendment of the United States Constitution at its surface, abolished slavery, there were
provisions established to perpetuate the system, as they deemed that slaves were “3/5 persons,” and therefore did not qualify as a person not to be enslaved.
Consequently, persons who escaped slavery were still subject to capture and enslavement.
Ava DuVernay produced the documentary, 13th, which chronicled the history of mass incarceration in America. In this piece, Ms. DuVernay shows how politicians and
corporations have created and perpetuated the mass incarceration of persons of color, and how the United States has become the only developed nation with a vast number
of its population incarcerated. Today, African Americans make up ??% of the ???Million persons who have been incarcerated. Prosecutors have built political careers on
compromising the freedom of innocent men and women of color. Fortunately, with the evolution of forensic technologies, innocent people are being vindicated and freed,
though not as quickly as necessary. The consequences of racial profiling have multi-generational consequences, as innocent men and women are not there physically,
emotionally, psychologically or financially for their families. Children grow up without the benefit of a parent. This is a travesty.


(V Kappeler,



Discrimination In America, “Washington Post (June 21, 2001)

Douglas A Smith, Christy Visher & Laura A Davidson, “Equity and Discretionary Justice: The Influence of Race on Police arrest Decisions,” Journal of Criminal Law and
Criminology 75 (spring 1984), pp. 234 – 249


Black, “The Social Organization of Arrest,” pp. 85 – 108

ACLU Driving While Black

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