1. Look at the sources below. They show changes which have taken place in an Italian village. Source A Livigno is one of the highest villages in the Alps. It used to be cut off during the winter. Nearly all the people in the village were poor farmers, keeping cattle and sheep. Winter was the quiet season, with no money coming in. Livigno is now a popular skiing resort, with 40,000 visitors at times. Almost everyone in the village makes money from tourism.
Source B – Livigno in 2009
Old farm buildings sold for tourist accommodation
Livigno Shopping and entertainment centre
Cable car Road tunnel open all year
Chair lift Source C – Services listed on Livigno’s website in 2009 Trades Electrician Plumber Builder Mechanic Entertainment Bowling Cinema and theatre Clubs and pubs Restaurants and cafes Shops Accommodation Souvenirs Hotels Chocolates Apartments Perfumery Camping Hairdressers Ski hire Banks Sports equipment Jeweller
(a) Using the sources, describe three possible economic advantages for the villagers of the changes which have taken place in Livigno. 1
4 (b) Livigno is a popular tourist centre. From your own knowledge, give two possible environmental problems which popular tourist centres have to put up with. 1
Look at the source below. It gives information about plans to restart deep mining for coal in Scotland.
The coal produced in Scotland’s deep mines produces too much pollution. However, new technology means that this coal can now be used safely in power stations. This means that power stations can now use the huge reserves of coal which still remain in Scotland. This deep-mined coal also causes less visual pollution than open-cast mining. Carbon emissions would be cut by 40%. The new technology would be cheaper than building new nuclear power stations and would reduce coal imports.
Marks KU EV 2. (continued) (a) Using the source, describe three advantages to the environment of the new coal technology.
4 (b) Deep mining and open-cast mining cause other environmental problems. From your own knowledge, give two examples of these other problems.
Look at the sources below. They give information about crimes against wildlife. Source A
A golden eagle has been poisoned in the Scottish Borders. It was one of the only breeding pair in the area. This means that no eagles will be raised in the Borders this year. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds wants stronger sentences and wants police forces to appoint Wildlife Officers to catch offenders. There are government plans to increase penalties for people convicted of wildlife crime. Gamekeepers could lose their gun licences and landowners would be heavily fined. However, farmers claim that eagles attack young lambs and kill grouse. One landowner said, “We need to earn money from grouse shooting. If these plans are passed, a gamekeeper could not do his job properly.”
Source B Numbers of poisoned birds in Scotland (2000–2006) Year Number 2000 145 2002 108 2004 154 2006 183
(a) There are plans to increase penalties for people convicted of wildlife crime. (i) From the sources, give two reasons for increased penalties. Reason 1
(ii) From the sources, give one reason against increased penalties. Reason 4
(b) Areas of outstanding natural beauty like the Scottish Highlands are often given special protection. From your own knowledge, give two reasons why these areas need to be protected. Reason 1
Look at the sources below. They give information about the development of an old farm on the Isle of Skye. Source A Before
(a) Using information from the sources, give three ways in which the local environment will benefit from this development. 1
3 4 (b) Sometimes developments are referred to a Public Enquiry before planning decisions are made. From your own knowledge, describe what happens at a Public Enquiry.
INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 5. Look at the source below. It gives information about home banking. Home banking allows customers to access their bank accounts at home on a computer. Source A
Local councillor Source B – A bank advert
(a) “Home banking is good for our customers.” (Source B) Using the information in Source A, give three reasons to disagree with this statement. 1
3 4 (b) Banking is a service industry. Give one other example of a service industry, one example of a manufacturing industry and two examples of primary industries. Complete the table below by choosing from the following list: Forestry, Shipbuilding, Oil drilling, Police.
Type of Industry Service Manufacturing Primary Primary
Look at the source below. It gives information about changing employment in the Scottish Borders.
8000 7000 6000 Number of 5000 workers 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1981 Key 1991 2001 2005 2009 Textiles Health and Social Services Agriculture and Forestry
Textiles Agriculture and Forestry Health and Social Services
(a) From the source, describe fully the changes which have taken place in employment between 1981 and 2009. (You should mention the main trends and use figures in your answer.)
(b) Tourism is a growth industry in Scotland. From your own knowledge, give two reasons to explain the rapid growth of this industry. 1
Look at the sources below. They give information about unemployment and training. Source A Persons unemployed for over 2 years
Source B Trainees on a government course were surveyed. The survey found that: • • 73% of trainees found a job. However, half of them said that the training was not needed for their job. Trainees went on the course because they thought it would help them get a job. However, few of them felt that learning job-search skills actually helped them find work. The main reason for trainees leaving the course early was because they had found work. Many of the long-term unemployed lack confidence and are reluctant to join these training schemes. However, good training can help improve self-confidence.
(a) “Government training schemes for the long-term unemployed do not work.” Using the sources, do you agree or disagree with this statement? Tick (?) one box. Agree Disagree Give three reasons for your choice. 1
3 4 (b) Training schemes for the unemployed are very expensive. From your own knowledge, give two reasons why the government is willing to spend a lot of money on them. Choose from the list below. Tick (?) the two correct boxes. Local colleges run training courses for the unemployed. The government gets taxes from people in jobs. The government gives cash grants to young people on training courses. The government has to pay out less in unemployment benefit. 4
SCOTTISH SOCIETY 8. Look at the sources below. They give information about living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Source A • • • • • • The average price of a house in a rural area is £180,000. The average price of a house in an urban area is £160,000. Workers in rural areas earn £25,000 a year. Workers in urban areas earn £30,000 a year. Holiday homes are usually found in rural areas. Holiday homes are charged less council tax.
(a) Using the sources, give three ways in which life for people in rural areas is more difficult than in urban areas. 1
(b) The population in Scotland’s rural areas has increased in recent years. From your own knowledge, give two reasons to explain why many people prefer to live in the countryside. 1
Marks KU EV 9. Look at the source below. It gives information about the languages spoken in Scotland in the past and the present. Scotland in 1100 AD Scotland in 2009
Key for both maps Gaelic speaking Norse speaking English speaking Gaelic and English speaking