Phonetics

A good answer to each of these questions would make clear references to specific formant values and would reflect an understanding of what differences in F1 and/or F2 imply.

Presence or absence of Canadian Raising

(1) Given your formant values for bout vs. bowed and bite vs. bide, does your speech exhibit Canadian Raising? Explain.

(2) How do your formant values for bout and bite compare to the formant values you measured for the word but? Would it be accurate to transcribe your vowel in bout as [ʌw] and your vowel in bite as [ʌj]? Explain.

Vowels before /ɹ/

(1) Our course transcription conventions use the lax vowels /ɪ/ /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ to transcribe vowels before /ɹ/. Is this accurate given your pronunciation of these vowels in beer, bear, and bore? To answer this question, you should consider:
• How do the formant values for the vowel in beer compare to the vowels you produced for beat and bit?
• How do the formant values for the vowel in bear compare to the vowels you produced for bait and bet?
• How do the formant values for the vowel in bore compare to the vowels you produced for boat and boy?

(2) How do the formant values for the vowel in bar compare to the vowels you produced for bat and bought? How about compared to bowed and bide? What does this tell you about your articulation of the vowel in bar? Does your pronunciation of /ɑ/ in bar exhibit fronting? Explain.

Presence or absence of /æ/-raising

(1) In class, we learned that many young Canadian English speakers exhibit /æ/-raising before nasals and/or velars. According to your formant values for ban, bag, and bang, does your speech exhibit /æ/-raising? If so, is it more prominent before nasals or before velars, or is it equally prominent before both? To answer this question, you should compare the formant values for the vowels in ban, bag, and bang to the vowels you produced in bat and bet.

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