Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Project description
Attached Files:

File APA Sample NMS.doc (439 KB)
File NMS – Koegh and Doyle.pdf (1.484 MB)

This paper is short and I am looking primarily at your APA format more than the content. Be sure to focus on proper APA formatting.

Attached you will find 2 useful and necessary documents. The first is a sample paper from a student from a previous semester utilizing the 6th edition APA manual. Be sure that the format of your APA rough draft looks similar to the sample paper before submitting. The second document is a PDF file of an article from the ISU library, which you will use a reference source for your paper.

This week we will begin writing a short 1-2 page double spaced paper (not including title page or reference page) on neuroleptic malignant syndrome. The primary purpose of this assignment is to get accustomed to 6th edition APA style.

For this paper I would like you to use only the following 2 references:

1. Varcarolis and Halter (2010), page 331. This is your texbook and please use only this and the following document as references for you paper.

2. Koegh and Doyle (2008) Psychopharmacolgical adverse effects. I have attached the pdf file above. This article is also available from the ISU library if you would like further information.

For this APA paper, please use only these references as I am more concerned with your APA formatting than the content and I need to be sure that you only use these two references and not any additional ones so that I can make corrections based on only on these two references.

Your paper topic will focus on neuroleptic malignant syndrome. As I mentioned, the paper is short. It should be at least one double spaced page and should not exceed two double spaced pages excluding the title page and the reference page. Please use only these two sources. I will deduct points if additional sources are used. Remember, the purpose of this assignment is to format and write according to the new 6th edition APA format so that you may have a template for future courses throughout this nursing program or for publication purposes in the future.

There are many good resources to help you create a properly formatted paper including the APA manual, which you should have in your possession, and the sample paper to help guide you.

This assignment will be your rough draft and will have two weeks to complete. This rough draft will be due at the end of Week 6 as indicated on the Weekly Calendar. There will be no points assigned to this assignment but you will need to submit this rough draft by the deadline for me to give feedback for the final complete assignment. Let me make this perfectly clear, if you do not submit rough draft by this deadline I will not give feedback for your final paper. Once I have given feedback on your rough draft, you will then be able to make corrections and submit your final paper which will be due at the conclusion of Week 13 as indicated on the Weekly Calendar.

Your rough draft should include the following:

1. A properly formatted title page including correct information in the header (see sample paper).

2. Your main body including a centered title on the first line of the main body. The title should be the same as the title used on your title page. The main body should be at least 1 double spaced paged and should not exceed two double spaced pages. You will need to make appropriate in text citations using the two sources indicated. Be sure both sources are used and are properly cited within the main body. (see sample paper)

3. A reference page. The reference page should include the words References centered on the top of a new page and will include your two references properly cited in APA format. (see sample paper)

Please use the included grading rubric that I will utilize to grade your final APA paper to guide you in your creation of your rough draft.

4. Please submit your rough draft electronically under the Projects tab on this Blackboard course site.


Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Fake Student
Indiana State University


Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
As nurses we have a responsibility to our patients to provide competent, effective, and safe medical care. Health promotion and symptom management are priorities in the care of our patients. When providing health care for mentally ill patients taking psychotropic medications, nothing could be more important than monitoring for side effects of the medications, especially Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS).
According to Keogh and Doyle (2008), NMS is a potentially life threatening, but relatively rare, idiosyncratic reaction to neuroleptic medications. The nurse should be aware of severity of NMS and know the signs and symptoms. In NMS, severe muscle rigidity develops with elevated temperature and a rapidly accelerating cascade of symptoms (occurring during the next 48 to 72 hours), which can include two or more of the following: hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, prominent diaphoresis, incontinence, mutism, leukocytosis, changes in level of consciousness ranging from confusion to coma, and laboratory evidence of muscle injury (e.g. elevated creatinine phosphokinase) (Boyd, 2008). If the nurse observes these signs and symptoms the nurse must take immediate action as this is a medical emergency and life saving measures should be put into place.
The most important aspects of nursing care of patients with NMS relate to recognizing symptoms early, holding any antipsychotic (any dopamine-blocking agent) medications, and initiating supportive nursing care (Boyd, 2008). Pharmacological interventions include the possible use of a dopamine agonist such as bromocriptine to increase the product ion of dopamine and/or a muscle relaxant such as dantrolene, in conjunction with this, antipyretics such as paracetamol can be given to reduce fever if indicated (Keogh & Doyle, 2008).


This would imply that if a patient being seen on an outpatient basis presents with these symptoms, then the patient would need to be immediately placed inpatient for treatment.
The nurse must be educated about NMS and be prepared to administer life saving measures in order to care for patients taking psychotropic medications. The nurse should also take a thorough health history which includes prior reactions to any and all medications that would indicate previous NMS. Where possible, clients with a history of NMS should not be given antipsychotic therapy again, and should instead be prescribed alternative medications such as lithium, carbamazepine, or benzodiazepines (Keogh & Doyle, 2008). Through education, thorough health histories, and vigilant nursing precautions; nurses can help reduce the potentially lethal complications of NMS.


Boyd, M. A. (2008). Psychiatric nursing: Contemporary practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott William & Wilkins.
Keogh, B., & Doyle, L. (2008). Psychopharmacological adverse effects. Mental Health Practice, 11(6), 28-30.

NMS – Koegh and Doyle.pdf (1.484 MB)

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