Managing Under Uncertainty

Assignment Two: Case Study Analysis (2000 words)
Decision making may be viewed from a number of different perspectives such as psychological, sociological or personality and values based perspectives. In this assessment item you are required to draw on any ONE of these three perspectives, analyse the critical decisions evident in the case study in terms of relevant theories, models and frameworks and critically discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the decisions. You are also required to propose recommendations for the case characters in terms of how they might improve their decision making in the future.

Assignment Task You are required to write about Sick Leave Case study (this case will be attach)
“Sick Leave”
Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., Minton, J. W. & Barry, B (2003), Negotiation: Reading, Exercises and Cases, McGraw Hill/Irwin: New York – pages 681 to 690

This assessment requires the student to engage in critical case study analysis and to engage in some research drawing on one of the following disciplinary perspectives:

• 1-Personality/Values
• 2-Psychology
• 3-Sociology

From “Negotiation : readings, exercises and cases / [edited by] Roy J. Lewicki .. [et al.]”, 4th ed.,Case 7, c2003,

CASE 7

Sick Leave

Kelly tried to control her angel as she thou-eht about her supervisor. She couldn’t under-
stand why he rvas being so unreasonable. Maybe to him it lvas only a couple days of
paid leave and not worth tighting over. but to her it meant the difference between being
abie to go on vacation during Golden Weekr or having to stay horne. She looked at her
contract and the phone number of CLAIR on her desk. She u,asn’t the only person in the
ofTice aff’ected by this. She sat and thought about horv she should proceed.

KELLY
Kelly was 22 years old and had been rvorking for the past six months at the Soto
Board of Education office in Japan. This was her first job after graduating from college
with a degree in rnanagement. and she was reall,v excited to irnally be in the real r.vorld.
Kelly rvas born in Calgary and had spent most of her life in Alberta, Canada.
Kelly’s father was a successful larvyer in Calgary, and her mother was a high school
English teacher. Kelly had an older sister, Laurel, 27 , who had just passed the bar exam
and was working fbr a corporate law firm in Edmonton.
Kelly had studied Japanese in high school and in university and spoke and wrote
the language quite well. When she was 15 years oid, Kelly spent tbur months in Japan
on a school exchange. She had enjoyed the time she spent there and ahvays planned to
return one day. Upon graduating tiom high school. Kelly lvent to the University of
Alberta, in Ednonton, to stucly nlarragement.
During her final year at the universitv, Kelly heard some of her friends talking about
the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) Program. She rvas told ihat it rvas quite easy to
get accepte(l-all an applicant needed was a university deglee and an interest in Japan-
and that it rvould be a great way to rnake rloney and see another part of the world. Kelly
would have her degree by the end of the year and thought that having lived in Japan and
knowing the language shorved enough interest to have her application considered. Kelly
thought that a year or lwo in Japan after her n.)anageilrent degree would improve her

This case u’as u’ritten bv Laura Turek. Coprnghr C1996 br Laura Turek. Used u’ith permission. This case
w’as prepared as a basis lbr classroom discu:.ior. lrol to illostr&re either the etfective or ineffective nlanagement
of an administrative sitLration.
rGolden Week is the period lrorn Apr:i lr) :,r lr) 5. in rrhich there are four
-lapanese national holidays.
{an1’Japanese erlp}ot’ees and their lanri;ie. :-r,:: ;rrjran[lge ofthis period to go on t,acation.

681
Case 7

Japanese alld give her r.nore of a competitive advantage when she retllrned to Canada to
begin her career. She also thought that it u,ould be a great way to make money and have
some fun before she came home to staft a real job. She asked her fiiencl horv she could
apply to the program and returned home that ni_uht to u,clrk on her r6sum€.

THE JAPAN EXCHANGE AND TEACHING (JET) PROGRAM

Before the JET Program
The ori-sins ofthe JETprogram can be traced backto 1982. In that year. the Japanese
Ministry of Education (Monbusho) initiated a project known as the Monbusho English
Feilorvs (NIEF) Prograrn, rvhich hired Americans to rvork at the iocal boards of education
in order to assist Japanese English teaching consultants who acted as advisors to the
Japanese teachers of English in the public schools. The task of the MEFs was to oversee
the junior and senior high school English teiichers and to assist them rvith their training. In
1983. the British English Teachers Schenre (BETS) was inaugurated by the Ministry of
Education. However, from the outset the British teachers were statiolred at schools, and
the goals of the program did not only concern English instruction but also sought tcr
increase mutuai understanding and improve friendly relations between the peopies of
Japan and Britain. While there were solne dil}’erences betrveen the two programs, both
shared tr common goal: inviting native English speakers to Japan to assist in improving
lbreign-language instruct ion.

The Birth of the JET Program
The realization that Japan lnust open itself nrore fully to contact with international
society began to foster an awareness of the iniportance of promoting internationaliza-
tion and international exchange at the local level. This brought about not only
expanded Engiish instruction, but also a rapid increase in exchange programs. Taking
these new circumstances into account, the Japanese Ministry ol Horne Atlairs in 1985
reieased a paper entitled “Plans for International Exchange Projects” as part of its pli-
ority policy of local governments for the tbllowing year. In the paper, the Ministry of
Home Alfairs proposed a definite course for the internationalization of local govern-
ments, which ideally would lead to smoothly functioning cultLrral exchanges. All of
these ideas were linally implemented in a concrete project: the Japan Exchange and
Teaching (JET) Program.
The Ministry of Home Allairs abolished the two projects curently in effect (MEF and
BETS) and created a new one that was entrusted simultaneously to tluee niinislries: the
N{inistry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Education. and the Ministry of Home Affairs.
However, the concept of appointing local authorities to implement the prograrn and act as
host institutions was preserved. While discussions were held rvith each of the local author-
ities to rvork out the details and ensure the smooth inrp)ementation of such a massi.,,e pro-
gram, the formation of a cooperative organization for all local government was expedited.

The Creation of CLAIR
CLAIR, originally the Conierence of Local Authorities tbr Intemational Relatr,.:-
rvas established in October 1986 b1 r.heTodoJilketi (the 47 prel’ectures of Japanliinu ii:
Sick Leave

Seircishiteitoslil (the lthenl l0 designated cities) as a cooperative organization respon-
sible for implementing the JET program in conjunction with the three Japanese rnin-
istries narned above.

CLAIR’s Role in the JET Program
To ensure smooth irnplementation of the JET program, the three ministries, the
local authorities. and CLAIR rvere all given speciiic functions. The functions that the
confelence atternpted to fuifill for implenenting the JET program wet’e as follorvs:

1. Advice and liaison during recruitment and selection.
2. Placement of participants.
3. Participant orientation, conf-erences.
4. Guidance for local authority host institutions.
-5. Participant weltare and counseling.
6. Tlavel alrangements for participants coming to Japan.
7. Liaison rvith related groups and institutions.
8. Publications and reference materials.
9. Publicity for the program.
The larger goal behind these functions of the conference was the promotion of
international exchange at the local level. Independent of this development, the Council
of Local Authorities for International Relations (a public endowed foundation) was
inaugurated in July 1987. The council’s main duty rvas to study and survey participat-
ing nations’ local authorities overseas r.vith the ultimate objective being to support local
government programs for the promotion of internationalization. By fostering interna-
tionai exchange at the regional level, the councii came to assume the same duties as the
Conf-erence of Local Authorities for International Relations. It was suggested that both
organizations merge since they held information relevant to each other’s work and
shared the goals of improving rvork efficiency and performing their tasks more effec-
tively. Moreover, the annual growth of the JET program led to an increased number of
interrelated duties and tasks. Thus, it was necessary to strengthen the structure of the
Conference of Local Authorities for International Relations.
It was decided that the operations and financiai assets of the conference would be
assumed by the council, and in August 1989 they were amalgamated, under the
acronym of CLAIR, to form a joint organization of local pubiic bodies in Japan to sup-
port and promote internationalization at the regional level.

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