LAB REPORT; Muscle Contraction Studies

I. Muscle Contraction Studies
(Lab starts at 1:21:39)

  1. Is tetany a normal reaction in skeletal muscle given a high frequency stimulus with adequate strength. Explain why this happens.
  2. How does the optimal length determination help us better strategize strength training of muscles? How would you use this information to advise someone who intends to lift weights to develop muscle strength?
  3. How do force and velocity relate to each other? Use your graph sketch to answer this question.
  4. What happens to force and velocity relationship if the starting length of the muscle was reduced?

II. Basic Electrocardiogram
(Lab starts at 1:00:00)

  1. What does the term bipolar lead mean with regards to ECG?
  2. Why is a ventricular axis deviation of -60 degrees considered left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and +140 degrees right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH)?
  3. What would happen to the QRS if there were a bundle branch block?
  4. What are the complications of frequent PVCs?
    Using the ECG tracings below, assess what each tracing is demonstrating and come up with a clinical assessment as to the rhythm of the cardiac cycle and what that could mean in terms of the cardiac hemodynamics


III. Spirometry
(Lab started at 1:36:38)

What does the % TVC measurements imply? What does it mean if the 2nd and 3rd second values are very low given normally functional equipment and correct procedure?

IV. Blood Studies
(Lab started at 1:45:05)

  1. How would you describe a typical RBC shape?
  2. What is role of the RBC shape in gas transport?
  3. What is the implication of high neutrophils and lymphocyte counts?
  4. What is the implication of a greater than normal presence of juvenile neutrophils?
  5. What is the implication of a greater than normal basophils? eosinophils?

V. RBC Count

  1. What is the implication of a low hematocrit?
  2. What is the implication of a high hematocrit?
  3. What is the implication of a low or high MCV?
  4. What is the implication of a low MCH?

VI. General Nerve Testing

  1. Why does a Jendrassik improve the strength of a reflex?
  2. Why is a brisk reflex i.e. +4/4 considered abnormal?
  3. Why does a person with an Upper Motor Neuron lesion demonstrate a brisk reflex?
  4. Why is assessment of vibratory sense important?
  5. Was two point discrimination better on a finger tip or the back and/or back of neck area? How would you explain your empirical results?

VII. Cranial Nerve Testing

  1. What are the implications in real life for anosmia (no sense of smell)?
  2. Give a reason for eyes held in pinpoint miosis that are not reactive to light
  3. Give a reason for eyes to be held in mydriasis that is not responsive to light.
  4. What would be the nerve affected in a Herpes Simplex viral infection of the face? What would be the clinical signs and symptoms?
  5. What cranial nerve is being affected in Trigeminal neuralgia? What would it its clinical signs?
  6. What would be the nerve(s) affected in Ramsey-Hunt syndrome? What would be its clinical signs?
  7. What issues can a palsy of the glossopharyngeal nerve create?
  8. What issues can a hypoglossal nerve palsy create?
  9. What issues can a vagus nerve palsy create?

VIII. Cerebral Testing

  1. What was the basic concept on which the Stroop test is based?
  2. What do the results of the Stroop test mean to you?
  3. What do the results of Cerebral Preference Test mean for you?
  4. Do you agree with the assessment or disagree? State at least one reason for either situation.
  5. How would you use this information to “improve” your performance to say, do better for an exam in any given subject?
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