Order Description

Your text authors suggest that by the mid-18th Century, many inhabitants throughout the world were moving “toward a new political order and global conflict.” A combination of historical periods contributed to this. The following terms are not exclusive of each other, as there was significant chronological over-lap between them. For instance, between the Renaissance and Reformation (15th to 17th centuries), the Reformation and Empire Building (17th to 19th centuries), and the Commercial Revolution which as a part of them all. Further, there are no specific starting or ending dates for each historical period; rather, they just sort of fade in and then fade out.

Consider this. First, the Commercial Revolution began during the High Middle Ages, as European merchants began to ply the spice trade to the East, and then accelerated as European trade connected with previously-establish commercial networks in the Americas, Africa, and parts of Asia. Second, at the same time Europeans came across new ideas and institutions outside of Europe, curiosity among some European intellectuals was turned toward matters of the universe, nature, science, art and architecture, literature, and political systems, as commerce expanded. Third, as the Renaissance intellectuals emphasized the role of the individual in society, so too did the Reformation, as Protestant leaders stressed the need for Christians to have a personal relationship with God, rather than going through the increasingly bureaucratic and corrupt Catholic hierarchy. Fourth, based much on the religious differences created by the Protestant Reformation–along with competition in the Commercial Revolution and technology resulting from the Renaissance–the great Lords of Europe began to build their political empires. Finally, fifth, Empire Building tied all of these events together, leading to the 18th century Enlightenment and early 19th century Reform Movement, and set the foundation for much of the Western (Europe and Euro-America) and non-Western world that we see today. …….

*******As your last TDQ, you will discuss the new order that your textbook authors suggest occupied Europeans starting in the late 17th century. First, they describe the autocratic nation-states that matured in Prussia, Austria, Russia, and France, and war that resulted, by the late 18th century. Then, they discuss the 1789 French Revolution and the disruptions in Europe built on such autocratic rule. So, please respond to the following: What were some similarities between the autocratic regimes established in Prussia, Austria, Russia, and France, particularly the reforms they implemented for them to be known as “enlightened” monarchs? Why did the French Revolution occur and what changes were produced because of it? And finally, was the rule of Napoleon an extension of the revolution, or a return to the old regime?**********

Your response to this initial post should be at least two or three paragraphs in length (at least five sentences per paragraph) and include specific examples to support your opinions.


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