Growing up with a mother with depression
Growing up with a mother with depression
Example the sample:
•How were these participants recruited?
•Is this sufficient or are there other possible ways of recruiting participants?
•Who is in this sample (describe)?
•How diverse are these participants (ie age, gender, race, income, etc.)
•Based on this information about the sample, is it possible to transfer the results of this one study to others in different settings?
•Can an outsider follow the logic from the data to the final product (how clearly are the data analysis steps described)?
•Are the procedures designed to ensure the dependability, credibility, and confirmability of the findings (examine each of the strategies associated with each term – are some of these used in the study and what others might have been included)?
•Are all voices present in the data and analysis (do the findings as presented seem to fully describe the complexity and diversity of people in the study and are there quotes from different participants)?
What are the findings:
•What is the contribution of this study to the social work knowledge base?
•In what ways is the contribution limited?
OBJECTIVE: Incorporate and enhance transnational strategies.
OBJECTIVE: Consider viable options for future transnational organizations.
Resource: Ch. 3 & 8 of Transnational Management
• Developing Transnational Strategies (in Bartlett, Ghoshal, & Beamish)
o Intro section (pp. 197-198)
o Worldwide Competitive Advantage: Goals and Means (pp. 198-202)
o Multinational, International, Global, and Transnational Strategies (pp. 203-206)
o Worldwide Competitive Advantage: The Strategic Tasks (pp. 206-209)
o Concluding Comments (pp. 209-210)
o Cases 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, & 3-4 (pp. 210-281)
o Readings 3-1, 3-2, & 3-3 (pp. 281-330)
Resource: Ch. 4 of The Quest for Global Dominance
• Exploiting Global Presence (in Gupta, Govindarajan, & Wang)
o Intro section (pp. 79-80)
o Sources of Global Competitive Advantage (p. 80-100)
o Creating Global Competitive Advantage: Action Implications (pp. 101-109)
o The Star Framework in Action (pp. 110-112)
o Conclusion (pp. 112-113)
Note. The information above is intended to help you complete your assignments. Read chapters in their entirety, as indicated in the syllabus. Additional information from sections not outlined above may be needed for classroom discussions. Page numbers refer to PDF versions of the textbooks.
The Qualitative Report
2014 Volume 19
Growing Up with a Mother with Depression:
An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
Hanna Van Parys
University of Leuven
Jonathan A. Smith
University of London, London, United Kingdom
University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
The aim of this study was to explore the childhood experience of living with a
parent with depression from a retrospective point of view. Five women between
39 and 47 years of age, who grew up with a mother with depression, were
interviewed about their current perspectives on their childhood experiences.
Interviews were semi
structured and the data were analyzed using
interpretative phenomenological analysis.
Data analysis led to a narrative
organized in two parts. The first part (
retrospective understanding of childhood
) reports on feelings of desolation contrasted to exceptional support,
related dwelling on own experiences, and growing into a caring role as
a way to keep standing. The second part (towards an
integration of childhood
experiences in adult realitie
) evidences ongoing processes of growing
understanding of the situation at home, coping with own vulnerabilities, making
the difference in
current family life and finding balance in the continued
bond with the parents. This retrospective investigati
on of adults’ perspectives
on their childhood experiences gave access to aspects of their experience that
remain underexposed in research based on data from children and adolescents.
Keywords: Children, Caregivers/Caregiving, Depression, Interpretative
nomenological Analysis (IPA), Parent
Child Relationships, Qualitative
In the past 2 decades, a growing number of studies focused on the influence of parental
mental illness on general family functioning (e.g., Dickstein et al.,
1998; Foster et al., 2008)
and on children’s well
being in particular (e.g., Cummings, Keller
& Davies, 2005; Goodman
et al., 2010). The main aim of this type of research is predicting and explaining relations
between parental mental illness and psychopathology in the child and later in life (e.g., Forbes
et al., 2006; Peisah, Brodaty, Luscombe, & Anstey, 2004; Whiffen,
Kerr, & Kallos
2005). In this research, children tend to be pictured as passive receivers of adverse outcomes
to their parent’s condition. Lacking a circular conceptualization of family dynamics, research
on children of
, for instance, often unilaterally stresses the diminishing
parenting capacities and the negative impact of depression on the parent
child interaction (e.g.,
While some studies examined stress and coping in relation to parental depress
Compas, Langrock, Keller, Merchant, & Copeland, 2002) or children’s behavioral and
emotional responses to low parental mood (Solantaus
Simula, Punamaki, & Beardslee, 2002a,
2002b), only a few studies have explored children’s experiences of paren
tal depression in the
family (Earley & Cushway, 2002; Goodman
, Tully, Connell, Hartman, & Huh, 2011;
The Qualitative Report
& Hall, 2008). One important theme that emerges in these studies is the child’s meaning
making. As the parental depression itself is often one of t
he subjects that is not under discussion
in the family, children express their need for more information about the parent’s illness
(Meadus & Johnson, 2000; Stallard, Norman, Huline
Dickens, Salter, & Cribb, 2004).
However, while children need information
to give meaning to what is happening around them,
there is also a danger in receiving too much information as this might burden the child (Stallard
et al., 2004).
Apart from enabling an understanding of the parent’s behavior, making sense of the
depression and their own experiences is also related to coping with this parental
condition (Aldrigde & Becker, 2003; Meadus & Johnson, 2000). The child’s experience of
coping with the parent’s depression is investigated by Mordoch and Hall (2008). In a qu
study, they describe how children and adolescents try to find a daily rhythm by first monitoring
the parent’s behaviors and moods, and then adjusting their own behaviors in response to their
observations. At the same time, children and adolescent
s try to create an appropriate distance
towards the parents to avoid being engulfed by the parental mental illness. In this long
process children and adolescents preserved themselves partly by building their own identity
and differentiating from their
parents (Mordoch & Hall, 2008). Related to that, Kaimal and
Beardslee (2010), in a study about the way emerging adults perceive parental depression, reveal
five general perspectives: resistance and negativity (clustered as “self
cceptance and compassion (clustered as “other
oriented” perspectives) and ambivalence.
Furthermore, the transition paths between these perspectives are analyzed at the ages of 17, 18,
and 19 years, revealing both changing and stable patterns (Kaimal & Bear
A third theme that is critical in studies on the children’s and adolescents’ experiences
of parental depression is sensitivity and caregiving. For a child, one particular way to go about
adversity at home is active involvement in the family
or in the parent’s emotional life. Children
might feel the vulnerabilities in their parent and try to act in a way that they cause the least
trouble or actively contribute to the family (Earley & Cushway, 2002). This family process is
referred to as parent
ification (Chase 1999; Jurkovic, 1997; Peris, Goecke
& Emery, 2008). Parental mental illness is considered one of the contexts in which
parentification occurs (Aldridge, 2006; Champion et al., 2009). Children of
are sensitive for behavioral signs of their parent and cues in the conversation with
their parent that inform them about their parent’s well
being or distress (e.g., Pölkki, Ervast, &
Huupponen, 2004; Van Parys & Rober, 2013). Along with this sensit
ivity, children worry a lot
about their parent’s emotional well
being and they experience increased responsibility for their
Medin, Edlund, & Ramklint, 2007; Van Parys & Rober, 2013). For
instance, children “try to be there for the paren
t” when he or she is in a state of emotional
despair (Aldridge, 2006). Using thematic analysis, Van Parys and Rober (2013) construct a
general framework of 14 children’s experiences of
parental depression and their own
caregiving in the family. The theme “
trying to comfort the parent” was selected for a
microanalysis, illustrating processes of overt negotiating of caretaking between parent and
child as well as dynamics of the child hiding or denying his worries as an answer to parental
distress (Van Parys &
In a meta
analysis of the experiences of young carers, Rose and Cohen (2010) report
that children try to integrate caring into
emerging identity. Children might be prone to
identity as “their exploration of alternative identities [is] limited” (Rose & Cohen, 2010,
p. 484). Lastly, there seems to be some kind of secrecy in the family with regard to this caring
role (Aldridge & Becker, 2003; Rose & Cohen, 2010). Pölkki et al.
especially younger children do not talk about their caretaking actions. In general, Focht
Birkerts and Beardslee (2000) state
that for both parents and children, the most difficult thing
to talk about is the distress children experie
nce about having a parent with a mental illness.
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