Fundamental of instruction

Fundamental of instruction

Paper details:

Answer the following questions in narrative format. Answer each thoroughly and thoughtfully. Lastly, please list the references utilized to answer the question (name of document and page number).
1. Compare and contrast the following certification requirements (hours, endorsements, restrictions, etc.): Part 61 Instrument Rating and Part 141 Instrument Rating. When can a CFI log instrument time? When can they log an approach while giving instruction? Explain instrument currency and provide a real world example you could use with a student (use dates). What items are required to be included on a Instrument Proficiency Check? Who may serve as a safety pilot? When does a CFI need a CFII to give instruction?
2. Draw (where applicable) and explain the following navigation systems below: ILS, VOR, NDB, GPS, and marker beacons. Define service volumes and locations of applicable navaids (i.e. localizer and glideslope antennas). What are the frequency bands for localizers, glideslopes, NDBs, VORs, and marker beacons? Explain what causes a false glideslope? How can you prevent this error from happening? What are the minimums for CAT I, II, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc approaches? Do you need any special equipment or endorsements to fly these different approaches? Explain the difference between a LDA and SDF approach? What are loop and sense antennas?
3. What are the different ways to perform a VOR check? What are the different tolerances? What information must be logged after completing a VOR check? What are the maintenance requirements specifically pertaining to instrument flight (VOR, transponder, etc.)? What are the requirements regarding the use of a GPS for navigation cross country? How often is GPS waypoint information updated?
4. Explain the compass errors. What causes them? Why does a compass lead or lag? What is an agonic line? What is an isogonic line? What is the isogonic correction in Los Angeles, CA? Explain a composite flight plan. What is special equipment? What is the preferred route between Chicago O’Hare and Orlando International? Where did you find this information?
5. What are vestibular and visual illusions associated with flying? Explain each and how you can combat them. Explain the anatomy of the ear and the eye? Why is each susceptible to the errors you listed?
6. List the O2 requirements from the ground up to FL 400. What are the different types of O2 systems for pilots. What type of oxygen is used? What color is the bottle? Explain the IFR rule for altitudes (from the surface up to FL 400) when heading eastbound.
7. What are the dimensions and rules (radios, navigation equipment, transponders, cloud clearances, airspeeds, etc.) of the following airspaces? A, B, C, D, E, G, Special Use, and Other. What ATC services are provided for IFR and VFR flight plans?
8. Using this fixed-card ADF diagram explain the following:?You should correct to a heading of ________o for a course intercept heading.
You know you have crossed the 030o bearing to the station when the needle on the ADF is pointing at _______o on the ADF to the station.
If the current winds are 270o at 10 knots, you should fly a magnetic heading of ________o for drift correction.
After you cross the NDB, this wind correction heading would result in a relative bearing of ________o on the ADF from the station.

9. Explain the NOTAM system.
10. list a gyroscopic instrument. Explain its operation and limitations.
11. Explain the different classifications of structural ice and turbulence.
12. Explain the differences between AIRMETs, SIGMETS, and Convective SIGMETS. What classifications define each?
13. Must a pilot call ATC if you let your clearance void time pass? Why or why not? What does “hold for release” mean? When do takeoff minimums apply to pilots under 91, 121, and 135? What are the standards?
14. Explain the different light gun signals and airport beacon signals.?
15. What is a VFR on top clearance? What are the rules while operating on one of these clearances?
16. Explain the different approach categories of aircraft and the circling minima associated with each.

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