formal and informal essay

formal and informal essay

Order Description


Assessments can be formal or informal. Formal assessments are used for evaluation purposes and include both standardized tests as well as teacher-produced exams.

Informal assessments are used by classroom teachers to determine the level of student understanding.

Note: Before starting the Task, read the articles by McKenna, et al., Cole, Ruiz-Primo et al., and by the International Reading Association listed in “References.”


After reading the three articles, write an essay (suggested length of 3 pages) that compares and contrasts formal and informal assessment techniques for measuring

student progress.

A. Define at least two formal (conventional) assessment types.
1. Describe at least two advantages of each formal (conventional) assessment type identified.
2. Describe at least two disadvantages of each formal (conventional) assessment type identified.

B. Define at least four informal (alternative) assessment types.
1. Describe at least two advantages of each informal (alternative) assessment type identified.
2. Describe at least two disadvantages of each informal (alternative) assessment type identified.

Note: As you refer to specific types of assessments do not use published names. For example, do not use names of specific exams (e.g., CaliforniaHigh School Exit Exam

[CAHSEE]). Rather, use types of exams (e.g., “standardized achievement exam”).

C. When you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format.

Note: For definitions of terms commonly used in the rubric, see the attached Rubric Terms.

Note: When using sources to support ideas and elements in a paper or project, the submission MUST include APA formatted in-text citations with a corresponding

reference list for any direct quotes or paraphrasing. It is not necessary to list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased in the text

of the paper or project.

Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. For tips on using APA

style, please refer to the APA Handout web link included in the General Instructions section.

Reference List:

Note: This reference list refers only to direct citations in the task above and may be different than those you need to complete the task. Consult your Course of Study

for a list of suggested learning resources.

McKenna, M.C., & Walpole, S. (2005, September). How Well Does Assessment Inform Our Reading Instruction?. The Reading Teacher, 59(1), 84–86. doi: 10.1598/RT.59.1.9

Cole, K. A. (1999, January). Walking around: Getting more from informal assessment. Mathematics teaching in the middle school, 4(4), 224–227.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., & Furtak, E. M. (2004, April). Informal formative assessment of students’ understanding of scientific inquiry. Paper presented at the AERA Annual

Meeting Symposium, Assessment for Reform-Based Science Teaching & Learning, Stanford University, Stanford. Note: Only read pages 1–9 for this assignment.


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