(focus on the central and high Middle Ages) what extent was the Third Crusade launched for religious reasons?

(focus on the central and high Middle Ages) what extent was the Third Crusade launched for religious reasons?

Order Description

(focus on the central and high Middle Ages)
1) To what extent was the Third Crusade launched for religious reasons?

Bibliographies must include at least four secondary sources, one of which must be an academic journal article and at least two of which must be monographs. In addition, you must have at least THREE primary source documents relating directly to your chosen topics. No non-peer reviewed sources may be used (such as Wikipedia).

Always address yourself to the wording of the question chosen. Remember to answer the question, and not just give a general survey of the subject to which it refers. Try to keep your approach analytic. I will not be setting questions that demand you to give substantial amounts of narrative or descriptive history.

– Don’t be tempted to just report what the `authorities’ have to say. A familiarity with what different historians have said about a particular topic, issue or debate will sharpen your understanding, but I am much more interested in what conclusions YOU have reached after assessing the various arguments and weighing the evidence for yourself.

– This is a second year level course – as such, you are expected to tackle primary evidence head on and use it to back up your arguments in seminar discussions and written essays. The skills that you need in order to effectively read and evaluate primary sources are part of what we’ll be working on together this year.

– For the written essays, stick within the length guidelines. It is actually harder to write a 2, 000 word essay which is analytic and properly focused on the question, rather than a 5,000 word essay which adopts a purely narrative and descriptive approach. Write concisely, and precisely.

– A proper bibliography must be appended to the last page – include separate sections for ‘primary sources’ and ‘secondary sources’. See the relevant undergraduate handbook for guidelines on citation and bibliographical referencing.

You must reference everything you write and which comes from a source other than yourself.
Medieval authors:
when referencing a primary source, please use the following format:
Author, Book title book number.book chapter.
e.g. Plato, Republic 3.2. (it stands for Plato’s Republic book 3, chapter 2)
Modern works:
When the work is referenced for the first time, provide a complete reference, along with a page number :

Author, Title (place of publication, year of publication), page number.
e.g. R. Winks & S. Mattern-Parkes, The Ancient Mediterranean World. From the Stone Age to A.D. 600 (Oxford, 2004), p. 120.
When the work is referenced for the second time, do as follows :

Author (date of the work), page number.
e.g. Winks & Mattern-Parkes (2004), p. 122.
N.B. : alternatively, you may use the Chicago style (see History students handbook)

Bibliography :
A bibliography must be comprised of two sections : 1) Primary sources and 2) Secondary sources.
Under the heading ‘Primary sources’, ALL sources used in your essay should be listed along their full bibliographical reference.

Author, Title. editor(s). Internet address (date of access).
e.g. Herodotus, History. From : https://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/athens-origins.asp (accessed 21 September 2011)

Under the heading ‘Secondary sources’, you should provide its reference in FULL:
e.g. Winks, Robin & Susan Mattern-Parkes. The Ancient Mediterranean World. From the Stone Age to A.D. 600. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Or use the Chicago style.

Essay requirements:
Electronic copies are not accepted.
Your essay must consist of an analysis of the source material relevant to your essay topic, and must show an awareness of the main questions discussed in the scholarly literature. No non-peer reviewed items should be used (such as Wikipedia and other internet websites/sources).

1) must be original, i.e. based on your interpretation of the source material.
2) Must show that you have acknowledged and understood the modern literature on your topic.
3) should be well-balanced. Weigh all aspects of each problem.
4) should be outlined in your introduction.
5) There should be one idea per paragraph that you illustrate with examples taken from the evidence

Introduction and conclusion:
1) Your introduction should include your thesis.
2) Your conclusion should BRIEFLY summarize the main points of your argument, without including any new elements. It should also develop on your thesis in 1-2 lines.

1) Must be stapled
2) should be free of typographical errors and spelling mistakes, and must be written in good English prose.

Late penalties:
-2% per day
weekend: -4%.
No essay should be submitted after 7 days.

PLEASE DO NOT USE THE WORD ‘BIASED’. It will lead you to under-develop your ideas e.g. ‘Solon’s account of his reforms in his poetry is biased, so we cannot use it as a source for early Athens.’ Okay, very interesting, now WHY is it biased??? Tell me instead that he had direct interests in showing to the Athenian leading class that his reforms, depriving the aristocracy of its old privileges, were a positive change for Athens, etc.


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