EUROPE AND THE WORLD 1500 TO PRESENT
EUROPE AND THE WORLD 1500 TO PRESENT
for each question, you must use AT LEAST 2 historical examples.
2) Enlightened Absolutism:
• Frederick II Hohenzollern (Prussia) – Meritocracy – Liberation of the Serfs – Abolishment of torture-Religious Toleration- Education, Culture, Learning –
– Potato : the new diet.
• Joseph II Habsburg (Holy Roman Empire- Austria) -Liberation of the Peasants,The Arts: Mozart,Religious Toleration ,Meritocracy
• Catherine the Great (Russia)
3)French Revolution:Causes of the French Revolution:Financial debt of French Absolute Monarchy
– Archaic system of taxation: Tax Farmers,Nobles did not pay taxes,Burden placed on peasantry
– Seigneurial dues, tithe, king’s tax
– King Louis XVI (1774-1792) and Queen Maria Antoinette-Attempted reform in the face of overburdening debt,Forced to call for consent of nobles,Alexis de
Tocqueville means Revolution occurs when government tries to reform itself.
– Socioeconomic grievances:Exploited populace without rights (peasantry, urban poor, lower middle class) ,Tax privileges ,Wealth concentrated in hands of few,No
way to redress grievances.
– Emergence of civil society (18th century),Formation of “the public” Politicization of the masses,Society thinks critically ,Popularization of Enlightenment
– Critical popular stance towards government and society
– Tabloids which is to Made fun of the monarchy
4)The Terror:1793-1794:Origins of the Terror
– Radicalization :Jacobinism, the Montagnards, populism, Paris commune all of this made Workers demand material equality not just rights and it was Led by
– Internal division over the revolution :Opposition to the Revolution increases which is The Vendee
– External invasion :State of Emergency which led to Suspension of civil rights and constitution , Saving “the Revolution” and “the Fatherland”
– Centralization of the French nation
– After Louis XVI and Maria Antoinette are executed, France was invaded by the monarchies of Europe :England, Prussia, Russia
• The outcome of the terror is “Cleansing” the Republic through violence and extermination
– Suspension of constitution and Rights of Man and Citizen (de-facto) ,Modern dictatorship created by Robespierre ,Violence against all “enemies of the
revolution”,“The revolution was devouring its own children”like Robert Danton .
– Creation of a modern Ideology :Revolution, general will, republic in danger, nationalism; Elimination of the Church ,Replacement of religion by nationalism as
Cult of the “Republic of Virtue”
– Significance of the Terror: Foretaste of totalitarianism ,revolutionary “democracy”
Napoleon Bonaparte :Self-made man ,Invasion of Egypt ,Coup d’etat (18th of Brumaire),Coronation of Emperor Napoleon I,Cult of Napoleon .
• Napoleon’s Reforms: Napoleonic Code ,Meritocratic aristocracy ,Modernity in traditional guise.
• The Grand Army: Citizen army ,Ideology,Meritocracy,Personal devotion ,Morale,Foretaste of total war
• Export of revolutionary ideals: Napoleon’s Empire -Colonialism? Imperialism? -War in St. Dominique / Haiti-Brutality
• Nationalism becomes contagious :Johannes Herder ,Tolstoy ,Lord Byron
• Defeat and Downfall:1812 failed invasion of Russia ,1815 Battle of Waterloo
• Establishment of Concert of Europe :Congress of Vienna, 1815
• Legacies of the French Revolution and Napoleon:Emergence of Modern European politics:
Ideology, revolutions, popular sovereignties, nationalism ,;Foretaste: of authoritarian “democracy” and social engineering, in addition to liberal democracy ;
Inclusivist and exclusivist nationalism .
• Spread of principles of French Revolution across continent
• French Revolution becomes central orientation ground for political factions and movements all over Europe .Liberals, conservatives, monarchists, socialists,
6)Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen:Origins of Nationalism:Effects of the Reformation :Vernacular,Rise of the (early) modern statehood. Effects of early
modern states:Absolute monarchy ,Constitutional monarchy ,Tolerance . Effects of the Enlightenment:Human rights, citizenship, “the people”,Formation of civil society
.Effects of the French Revolution :Idea of “civilization” based on nationalism, citizenship, and “democracy”,Culture of nationalism popularized,Rise of the “isms”.
• 7)Johann Gottfried Herder:1744-1803:one of the National movements and their leaders (“awakeners”)his idea:A nation is a community grounded in ethnicity and
language (ethnic nationalism),Ethnolinguistic nationalism versus civic nationalism
– France & England versus central Europe ,Problem with this in Central Europe: ethnic mixture.
8)Concert of Europe: Russia used to be the concert of Europe but after !848 it lost it . and germany Italy took advantage of the situation
9)Revolutions of 1848 :“The Spring of Nations’’:
– King Louis-Philippe refused democratic reforms
– Economic causes: Crop failures (Irish potato blight),Cholera Epidemic ,Recession
– June: huge worker’s protest
– Results: monarchy abolished, republic re-introduced, universal male suffrage, Working-class movement strengthened, News spread fast to Central Europe.
– March 1848: National uprisings in Berlin, Vienna, Milan, Venice, Budapest, Cracow..Freedom against Absolute Monarchy
• What revolutionaries wanted:Did not want to overthrow the government. Middle Classes (liberals): a nation under a constitutional government; Federalism in the
Habsburg Empire.Lower Classes (liberals, socialists): better working conditions; end to serfdom.Middle class fear of lower classes.Monarchs concede to the middle
• Problems with 1848:Revolutionaries could not agree over how to draw their nation: German Parliament: Disagreement over “what is Germany” –Greater Germany with
Austria, Small Germany without Austria
• Habsburg Empire (Austrian Empire) :Various nationalities conflict with one another over how to divide the Empire—Conflict between Czechs and Hungarians,Slavs
united under protection of Russia form Pan-Slavic Movement (Pan Slavism)
• Important points of 1848:In the Habsburg Empire the revolutionaries wanted to preserve the monarchy with greater national autonomy.
• In Germany and Italy they wanted a national constitutional monarchy.
• Failure of revolutions because: ethnic strife within Habsburg monarchy, middle classes’ fear of the lower classes,monarchies launch military attack on
• 10)Industrial Revolution:Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Developments:
– Rise of the Bourgeoisie :1)Reformation:cities,Protestant work ethic 2)Gentry in England (non-noble elites) 3)Meritocracy (in absolutism) 4)Revolutions favoring
middle class: English, American, French
– Ideology of capitalism: 1)Enlightenment favors rationalism, manufacturing, technology, and invention .2)Adam Smith :Division of Labor ,Laissez-faire economics.
– Eighteenth Century Developments: 1)Population growth:Agricultural Revolution- Potato
2)Atlantic system, 18th century :Colonialism, Mercantilism (protectionism). Sugar, coffee plantations which brought Enormous profit.
3)Manufacturing, 18th century :Domestic system of manufacturing (Proto-Industrialization) as Cottage economy –Subsistence,Uneven work schedule
• The First Industrial Revolution, 1780-1850 Centered in England:Critical Elements:
– Textile manufacturing inventions, 1700s :spinning jenny ,water mill
– Steam engines powered by burning of coal:
• inventions in England: 1)steam engine:James Watt, 1776
2)steam engine-powered train :George Stephenson, 1820s.
• Development of rail road
11)the working class:Rise of the Working Class (workers): Factories, mines, metallurgy plants,New sense of time ,Urbanization.
• Characteristic of factory work: Centrality ,Division of labor ,Wages ,Discipline ,Poor working conditions :long hours and few safety standards, New system of
time ,Creation of a new man: worker
• Exploitation of workers in the factories:1)Workers protest and government takes action
2)Factory Act of 1833 in England: Outlawed employment of children under the age of nine in textile mills.Limited workdays of children ages 9 to 13 to nine hrs. per
day. And those 13-15 yrs old to 12 hrs.
3)Mines act of 1842:Prohibited employment of women and girls to work underground
4)1847:law limiting workday of women and children to 10 hrs.
12)fin de siècle:
13)modernism :cultural movement Reaction to modernity:1)Painting , sculpture, literature, architecture, theater, dance, musical composition.2)Sense that the world
had radically changed and that you have to come to terms with the change.3)Traditional values and assumptions were outdated. 4)Art should be about expression and not
representation. Freedom and experimentation .Munch – “The Scream”.Portrait of AmbroiseVollard by Pablo Picasso, 1909.Black Lines by Wassily Kandinsky, 1913
14)The bougeouise society:
The ruling class in bourgeois society is the bourgeoisie, who own the means of production as Private Property, despite the fact that theproductive forces have become
entirely socialised and operate on the scale of the world market.
15)modern anti-Semitism: Crisis of modernity.1)Jews become a “ethnicity” or “race”-persecution of Jews .forging of “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” (not real) . 2)
Reaction: Zionism.Theodor Herzl : Jewish state in Palestine.
16)Feminism:Feminism : what about “rights of woman”? Women’s struggle for suffrage (right to vote).1906: women gain suffrage in Finland.England: Suffragettes led by
Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) -Violence and terrorism
17) social engineering state: the Nazis in European context: 1)WWI gave way to the social engineering state -States take over economies -States manage societies such
as Welfare system and Homogeneity (one nation and one people) 2)Belief after WWI that technology and state power can be used to engineer an ideal society.
18)Nazi party: rise of the nazis: National Socialist German Worker’s Party
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) or “Nazi” – ok to abbreviate : NSDAP or NS
• Adolf Hitler an Austrian Aspiring artist and WWI veteran
• Nazi road to power: 1)1923 Beer Hall Putsch -Failed attempt to take power like Mussolini 2)Hitler in prison -Writes book: Mein Kampf (my fight) 3)Late
twenties and early thirties: -Nazis become a legal political party -Run in elections 4)Great Depression years-Become a catch-all party of protest 5) Best Nazi
performance in July 1932 elections to Reichstag -Won 37.4% of vote , which was significant, but was never a majority 6)5 March 1933: Hindenburg appoints Hitler as
Chancellor 7)Nazis use terror and violence to win majorities in Reichstag in the next elections 8)Use coersion to end democracy, and establish dictatorship: office of
the Führer -Reichstag Fire
Nazi ideology: FASCISM but also similar to Stalinism
• Radical Nationalism:1)Cultural conservatism: return to nature (society of farmers) 2)Embrace of modernization 3)Social Darwinism: permanent struggle for
racial supremacy 4)Imperialism:-THE THIRD REICH -Colonize Europe 5)Racism (Europeans categorized into races) –Radical anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish sentiment)
• Autarky instead of capitalism -Nationalist Socialism
• Führer Principle:1) Total submission to the Führer = leader or guide 2)Democracy is “decadence”
• Totalitarianism: Nazi Party takes over all centers of power in government and civilian life
• Create Political and National Unity by Terror and Violence: 1)S.A. & S.S. (Nazi internal army) 2)Gestapo (Geheim-Staats-Polizei or Secret State Police) 3)
Concentration camps for political and “racial” enemies
Nazi anti-jewish policy:Removal of Jews from public life: 1)Nuremberg Laws (1935) -Jews stripped of German citizenship and removed from civil service 2)Kristallnacht
(Night of Broken Glass), 9-10 November 1938 —Massive Pogrom against Jews and their property 3)Ethnic Cleansing :First encouraged Jewish migration (including to
Palestine) .During World War II Jews were expelled from Germany .After 1941 Hitler worked to “cleanse” all of Europe of Jews asTHE HOLOCAUST or SHOAH.
19) cold war: 1)Soviet Empire 2)End of Western European Dominance3)Rise of the USA -Marshall Plan 4)Stages -NATO and Warsaw Pact create arms race 1)1961 height with
Cuban Missile Crisis and Berlin Crisis -Berlin Wall, 1961 2)Proxy Wars during the 50s and 60s-Korea and Vietnam 2)Detente, 1970s -Attempt to create a world order on
mutual coexistence between West and USSR 3)Crisis and Collapse of Communism, 1980s -1989 marked the end of the Soviet Empire.
20) riventrop Molotov pact: THE MAKING OF THE NEW IMPERIALISM, 1930s & 1940s„THE SCRAMBLE FOR EUROPE”Important Events October 1938 – December of 1941
• Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (23 August 1939): Germany and USSR are allies.
– Agree to partition Poland amongst themselves
Important Events October 1938 – December of 1941 :1)Hitler invades Poland (1 September 1939) -Great Britain and France declare war on Germany do not actually attack
Germany -OFFICIAL BEGINNING OF WWII .2)Stalin invades Poland from the east (17 Sept. 1939) -Destruction of Polish intelligencia as Katyn Forest Massacre (tens of
thousands of Polish leaders are executed by the USSR)
Important Events October 1938 – December of 1941 July 1940: establishment of Vichy France
1)Hitler places part of France under puppet government of French fascists, under Marshall Philippe Petain. -Collaboration 2)Governs rest of France directly 3)
Annexation of Alsace-Lorraine
21) imperialism : The outcome of imperialism: Much of the world forced into modernization based on European model: 1) Much of the world unequally integrated into
global economy.2)Europe becomes a continent of rivaling imperial nation-states 3)Colonies subjected to violence, exploitation, uneven development. 4) Racism, Social
Darwinism, Euro-centrism -invade nationalism -the nation becomes a physical body that must be cleansed -the nation becomes imagined as a race.
23)French Algeria: French Algeria (direct rule): 1)Settlement colony: *French Algeria and South Africa *By 1914: 700,000 Europeans in French Algeria (rule over 5
million natives). *Creole communities 2)European elites: Seizure of land, great plantation. building of infrastructure: railroads, roads, waterways.Property rights
and privileges . 3)Departement of France, 1870- Only Europeans were citizens of France .Hypocrisy.Legitimation of hypocrisy
25)British India : British India: *British East India Company *The Raj & Lord Curzon *Cheap labor*Opium trade with China
British India: Formation of a native elite___“Who may be the interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern—a class of persons Indian in color and blood, but
English in tastes, in morals, and in intellect.” –British writer .British-educated civil servants-“Mimicry” -Mahatma Gandhi.
26)Unification of Germany and Italy : National unification via realpolitick:
Case of Italy: 1)Italy’s bottom-up national revolution in 1848: -Guissepe Mazzini, Young Italy Movement -“For your freedom and ours” 2)Top-down unification in
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia -Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861), prime minister-Modernization: Piedmontese Railroad -Strategic diplomatic alliances against
enemies.Realpolitik ,French and Habsburgs.
• *Stirring up popular nationalist fervor -Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) and Sicily -“Red Shirts”.
• *Unification of Italy under Piedmont-Sardinia -king Victor Emmanuel in 1861
Case of Germany :1)Austria versus Prussia -Kingdom of Bavaria 2)Industrialization 3)Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898), Chancellor -“The great questions of the day will
not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of 1848-1849—but by iron and blood.” 4)Wars of Unification: -1864 against Denmark -1866
against Austria (Austro-Prussian War) -1870 against France (Franco-Prussian War)
27)nation-building by the state :1850-1890: “Man cannot create or control the tide of time, he can only move in the same direction and try to direct it.” – Otto von
States aim to take control over forces of change .
“Das Lied der Deutschen” (The song of the Germans) Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, in 1841
#Nation building by the state:The shower of change, 1850-1875: 1)Rise of new nations: Germany and Italy. 2) Revolutionary spirit-liberal nationalism-workers movement
3)politicization of masses 4)Urbanization and the typhus and cholera epidemics 5)Industrial Revolutions-Germany leads-urbanization, pollution, cholera-First Economic
Crisis, 1873. 6)State searches for order and stability-Social order 7)Public faith in the state .
• France under Emperor Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870): 1) Industrialization -Limited-liability, free trade, central banking. 2)Social reforms-Legalization of
trade unions and strikes 3)Nationalization -Infrastructure, transportation, public schooling, military service, government centralization
• The Case of Germany under Bismarck: 1)Call for liberal reforms and rising worker’s movement (SPD). 2)Democratization in the hands of the state, 1864-1871
– Universal male suffrage
» to keep bourgeois liberals in check from working classes
– wealthy had 1/3 of votes (more votes than the poor)
3)The Welfare State: -Sickness and accident insurance -Factory inspection-Limited hour work day -Public employment agencies Retirement.
• Nationalization (“Germanization”): 1)The Kulturkampf (Cultural Struggle) :*Against the political influence of Catholic Church –Jesuits, civil marriage,
priests prohibited from talking politics—secular education with German only. *One language, one nation. 2)The Anti-Socialist Laws
• Restrictions on German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
28)World War I: outbreak of WWI:Alliances activated: *Germany and Austria-Hungary. *Russia, France, England . Mobilization of public via propaganda –Myth of “jolly
little war” and “finished by Christmas”. —Nationalism that hate. Germany fired the first shot –Attempt to avoid a war on two front
Origins of WWI: Germans offensive:1)Invade Belgium and France -Western Front
2)Attack Russia :Germany army advances deep into Russia.October 1917: The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.Russians surrender to Germany: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (3 May
3)British —Use Pan Arabism to weaken the Ottoman Empire –Arab Revolt, 1916.Sherif Hussain bin Ali takes Damascus
Significance of WWI :1)The most intensive, widespread, and bloodiest war ever.
2)Creates a revolution of nation-statehood : 1-Triumph of the Nation as Fall of monarchical empires (Austria-Hungary, Ottomans, Russia). Fall of Imperial Germany .2-
The Nation-State becomes all-powerful. governments control the economy, military, society.governments use propaganda . major outcome: totalitarianism
29)total war : War of global involvement =French and British use of colonials in war effort to fight and work . Total war: Not just a “man’s war” Women worked
factories at home. War of global involvement French and British use of colonials in war effort to fight and work as Africans and Indians.
The second world war Total War: more total than ever . 1)A war against civilians:Often hardly any distinction between “soldier” and “civilian”.Refugees. 2)Airplanes
drop bombs =“Carpet bombing” of cities. 1-September 1940 to May 1941: Germans bomb London and other British cities (“the Blitz”) 2-1943-1945: England, USA, and USSR
30)Bolshevik Revolution : Origins: 1)Science, Enlightenment, and civil society since Peter I Catherine II (the Great, eighteenth-century tsar) 2)Only limited liberal
reforms and industrialization in Russia–Industrialization limited —-Middle class small and weak —-Poverty, exploitation, discontent —Mir (collective village)
established after Crimean War. 3)1904: Russo-Japanese War—Russia humiliated –Liberal Revolution follows in 1905 , but has limited gains. 4)World War One—Russia
loses to Germany —1917 Revolution: first by Mensheviks (liberals) in February, then by Bolsheviks (communists) in October
Vladimir Lenin: Leader of the Bolsheviks,Follower of Karl Marx ,A philosopher of action,A revolution by the book.
October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution), 1917: 1)Lenin popular because promises “Peace, Land, Bread”. 2)Bolsheviks seize power by force . 3)Soviets (Soviet
Union)—“All power to the Soviets” (regional councils) —Abolition of private property . 4)Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
Marxist-Leninism : 1)Permanent Revolution:—Industrialization and the building of communism occur at once.—-Communism becomes a path to industrialization &
development . 2)Party Dictatorship——“Democracy” —-New order, New Man.
Consequneces of the Bolshevik revolution:Nature of the Revolution
1)Civil War (1917-1920) :Red Army & White Army . 2)Terror against all “enemies of the revolution” :Class war versus “bourgeoisie,” “counter-revolutionaries,”
“reactionaries” .3) The building of a new kind of government: Totalitarianism –Autarky –Police state –one party dictatorship –party ideology to dictate all
morals and beliefs.
31)Mustafa Kemal Attaturk: Authoritarian nationalist dictatorships in Central and Eastern Europe long before Nazis.–Democracy fails everywhere but in Czechoslovakia
and is replaced by military dictatorships as Kemal Attatürk in Turkey
32)fascism : Communist Revolution spreads into Central Europe in 1919: 1)Hungarian Communist State (one month) 2)Communist Germany (very short). Rosa Luxemburg & Karl
Liebknecht (the Spartacists) as Red Berlin, 1918.
The Reaction is the rise of fascism (radical nationalism) :Born in the trenches of World War I. In Germany and Hungary radical nationalists defeat the communists
33)Wilson’s Fourteen Points (Wilsonianism) : Revolution of Statehood :Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” : 1)Fall of Empires–Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, Russia
—Final end of Old Regime
2)National self-determination —One people, one nation 3)Imperialism got a bad name
4)League of Nations. 5)Wilsonianism: A world of homogenous nation states.
34)Treaty of Versailles : Revolution of Statehood :Paris Peace Conference at Versailles, 1919-1922
Produces TREATY OF VERSAILLES : 1)Big Four: Great Britain, France, USA, Italy
2)Punish Germany for the war:Germany loses territory to new successor states .Germany forced to pay indemnity to France .Germany humiliated: sets the state for World
The New European Order est. by Treaty of Versailles: The Losers:#1. Germany :1 )Territorial Loss to France, Poland, Czechoslovakia—-Germans living outside of German
borders 2)Establishment of a Republic (“Weimar Republic”)—A republic without republicans . 3)War Guilt Clause. 4)Indemnity to France—-France invades Germany in
1923 (invasion of the Ruhr) 5)Dolchstoss Mythos (Stab in the Back Myth)—–anti-Jewish thought.
The New European Order est. by Treaty of Versailles: 1)Central Europe becomes a zone of conflict / crisis
2)Persecution of minorities 3)Call for “return” of “our territories” —Irredentism . 4)Sets the stage for World War II
League of Nations:unable to preserve peace ,return to alliances.
35)irredentism:Post-WWI settlement: Irredentism (politics of claiming soil) :States with ethnic minorities claimed by other nations 1)Romania: large Hungarian
population in Transylvania—- Hungary calls for Transylvania 2)Poland called for land from Czechoslovakia 3)German called for land from Poland and
Czechoslovakia——–Germany calls for western Poland
36)Mandate System : Mandate System: Former colonies, “which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern
world….”Justification for the Mandates.
The new imperialism:Arbitrary creation of Arab nation-states—Partition strategy —–Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan.
37)Balfour Declaration: Balfour Declaration, 1917: 1)Zionism since Fin de Siecle era .2)British Mandate of Palestine to become a settlement ground for European Jews.
38)totalitarianism: Totalitarianism is a concept used by some political scientists in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all
aspects of public and private life wherever possible. Such states are totalitarian states.
The concept of totalitarianism was first developed in the 1920s by the Weimar German jurist, and later Nazi academic,Carl Schmitt and Italian fascists. Schmitt used
the term, Totalstaat in his influential work on the legal basis of an all-powerful state, The Concept of the Political (1927). The concept became prominent in
Western anti-communistpolitical discourse during the Cold War era, in order to highlight perceived similarities between Nazi Germany and otherFascist states on the one
hand, and Soviet Communist Party states on the other.
Other movements and governments have also been described as totalitarian. The leader of the historic Spanishreactionary conservative movement called the Spanish
Confederation of the Autonomous Right declared his intention to “give Spain a true unity, a new spirit, a totalitarian polity…” and went on to say “Democracy is not
an end but a means to the conquest of the new state. When the time comes, either parliament submits or we will eliminate it.
39)Great Depression : World Economic Crisis (Great Depression) : 1)Starts with New York Stock Market Crash of 1929. 2)Height in 1930. 3)Unemployment up to 30%. 4)Ends
World Economic Crisis (Great Depression) : 1)Development of Etatism (state-regulated economies) 2)Keynesianism ——–John Maynard Keynes (American economist) ——
Stimulate the economy by government investment. 3)Public works programs . 4)Expansion of welfare state. 5)Greater state regulation of the economy. 6)Faith in the state
Crisis of capitalism & lure of communism.
40)Joseph Stalin : Rise of Joseph Stalin (1923-1953)
Re-institution of State economy (autarky) in 1930s: 1)Create a modern state that is an alternative to: liberalism and capitalism (in other words anti-western) 2)Five
year plan (centrally-planned economy) 3)Collectivization —Collective farms 4)Violence and coercion —NKVD (Stalin’s secret police)——Gulag (concentration camps
for “enemies of the revolution”) —-Deportations to Siberia 5)“Socialist Realist Art”—-Stalin: “The artist is the engineer of the human soul” (Art as propaganda)
…..Create the “New Man” (social engineering).
41)The New Imperialism of the 1930s: FASCIST ITALY 1)Mussolini strives to build second “Roman Empire” 2)“Pacification” of Libya, 1928-1931
– Thousands deported to concentration camps: death toll in tens of thousands
– Al-Mukhtar, leader of resistance, executed in 1931
3)1935 – 1936: INVASION OF ETHIOPIA
– Propaganda War : demonstration of Italy’s military prowess.
– Massive atrocities due to use of aerial bombings and poisonous gas.
42)Genocide/mass murder during World War II:A war of genocide and mass murder (crimes against humanity) . Nazi Germany :The Holocaust (Shoah) :After the invasion of
the USSR the Nazis plan out the destruction of all of Jews —-Transportation of millions of Jews to occupied Poland.—systematic mass murder of Jews in death
factories (Death Camps) 1)mass production techniques,2)industrial resources.——-death by work 1)“inferior races” or “degenerates” 2)Jews, homosexuals, Gypsies.
Other mass murders: mass killings of Russians and Poles .A war of genocide and mass murder (crimes against humanity) :1) USSR:*Katyn Forest Massacre against
Poles.*Concentration camps for Germans in 1944-1945. *Massive rape of German women in 1945. 2)Croats –Fascist Ustasha regime allied with Hitler carries out genocide
against Serbs . 3)Japan—mass murder of Chinese and Koreans
• 22)1989: European integration
– European Economic Community
– European Union
– EU Eastward Expansion
– bloodless revolution
– Europe a continent of democratic and liberal nations
24)The Sixties:The Sixties Political Cultural Revolution (1968) :1)End to “modernism” : nationalism, racism, imperialism, nation-state . 2)Rise of postmodern thought
———integration of the “Global South” into the world cultural order ——-all cultures examined on equal terms .3)Political reforms:Civil Rights and Human Rights
like Helsinki Accords .Government de-centralization .Transparency
QUESTIONS (be able to answer each using at least 2 historical examples) [Hint: many of these examples you can use are listed above.]
How did the French Revolution mark the beginning of modern politics?
How and why did Europeans become national? (Differences between western and central/eastern Europe)
How did the industrial revolution change society and politics?
How did the crisis of modernity affect culture and politics?
How can we characterize imperialism in comparison to 18th century colonialism?
How did nation-states develop (top-down nationalism) and what were their features?
How can we compare World War I to World War II?
How did World War I revolutionize national and international politics?
How can we compare and contrast the totalitarian states?
What were some of the main features of the postwar (after World War II) era?
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