Community Analysis

Community Analysis

• Assessment item 3
Final Essay
Value: 40%
Length: 2000-2500
Submission method options
Task:
Choose one of the case studies from topics 9-12 (rural youth suicide, family transition to rural living, environmental impacts on communities, work in and for communities, and the virtual community) and use one or more theories or concepts from Topics 3-8 to critically analyse and explore the case.
The essay word limit is a range (2000-2500) and so the often applied 10% rule does NOT apply. Breaching the word limit will incur a penalty of between 5 and 15 marks depending on the severity of the word limit breach.
In your essay you will need to make a case for how the theory, concepts or ideas can help to explain or solve the problems presented in the case study. You may also choose to argue that the theory, concepts or ideas do not help you to understand the case. Your essay will need to be carefully structured and researched. It is strongly advised that you use the feedback from your first and second assessments inform your writing, research, and understanding of ideas, concepts and theories.
Rationale
One of the main tasks of the community analyst is to apply theory to real world examples. When a sociologist undertakes such a task we look to the existing research about a subject and try to establish what the social and cultural problems are in the context we are trying to understand. When we apply theory, we quite often find that we need to apply or use a combination of theories. Sometimes the theory that we apply can help us not only understand what is going on, but also give us a solution to the problems people in the context (or event) are facing.
Your essay is therefore asking you to think about a particular theory (or theories) and investigate what that theory can and can’t say about a particular case. Effectively, we are asking you to analyse and evaluate a case study, and think about a theory or theories critically.
Another reason you are asked to write this essay is because sociologists need to have good communication skills, particularly writing skills. We rarely get the opportunity to present our findings to a group of people face to face, instead having to write our ideas, assessments, analysis and conclusions in either reports or journal articles. Sometimes we have to write to the people we are studying in order that they are informed of what we have discovered as well. Therefore, writing skills are very important to the sociologist. We need to be able to argue that what we have discovered is reasonable, reliable and worth knowing; we also need to be able to argue that the solution we have found for a group of people is a better option than what they have now, or might be told by someone else. Therefore, being able to write down our critical thinking and argument in a way that other people can understand becomes very important.
Marking criteria
Your essay will be assessed according to 8 Standards:
1. Knowledge and understanding of theory or theories. This is your chance to show that you have met learning outcomes 1 and 2. That is you are able to understand the structure, processes and factors influencing social life in communities and can examine these sociologically.
2. Knowledge and understanding of the case study. This standard is your opportunity to show that you can identify problems in communities (Learning outcome 3)
3. Application of the theory to the case study. This standard refers to the your capacity to use theory to assess problems in communities and use sociological ideas to solve those problems (learning outcome 4)
4. Capacity to assess the merits of a theory (analysis) and its value to the case (application). Here we are looking for how well you can say you can analyse sociologically (learning outcome 2) and use the theory and concepts (learning outcome 3).
5. The structure of your essay (logic of your argument). In all our involvement with communities, we need to be able to communicate clearly and logically. Thus, writing style and communications skills are important parts of being able to solve problems. This assessment is therefore an opportunity to develop those skills and directly relates to identifying community problems and solving or alleviating the affect of them (learning outcome 3).
6. Quality of your additional research. As sociologists working in communities, we often need to understand a broad range of existing research and ways others have responded to problems. By being able to research widely in quality peer reviewed literature we are better equipped to deal with these problems. It also means we can justify our judgements and make an argument for our intervention or action (analysis and evaluation). Thus it is important to be able to access quality research. Achieving well in your research means you can show you have met learning outcomes 3 and 4.
7. Writing (paragraphing, sentence structure, clarity). Again, communicating with people is important and high level writing skills helps to do that. By developing your writing you are again showing you have met learning outcome 3.
8. Referencing and formatting (APA style, always referenced where and idea is presented that is not your own). As sociologists and community analysts, we need to be able to acknowledge where our ideas came from, therefore good referencing is essential for being a good sociologist, and shows we have met learning outcome 2.

• Weekly Reading
All the reading is either a journal article, eBook book chapter, available through eReserve in the library, or is in the resources folder of the subject interact 2 site. The reading list below indicates whether the reading is in eReserve, eBook or available in pdf in Resources. Please note that if it is a journal article you will need to find it on the library website.
There are three levels of reading for each topic: Required Reading (you need to read all of these in order to pass the assessments), Recommended Reading and Further reading. Each level, and its bearing on the topics and assessments, are discussed below.

Required reading – The required reading gives you an overview of the sociological theory of community in topics 1-8, or are case studies (in topics 9-12) that use specific theories for analysis. These are the readings to focus on. These are the basis of your Assesment and learning tasks. Assessment 1 uses the first two weeks of Required Reading, the mid semester test is about Topic 3 to 8 reading, and Topics 9 to 12 are the case studies you will be asked to analyse and evaluate for your essay in assessment 3.

Recommended Reading – The Recommended readings highlight an aspect of the topic that isn’t focussed on in the main theme of the topic (they are mentioned in the lectures). These have been chosen to bring you a different perspective or provide a new piece of the puzzle of communities from a sociological point of view. In some topics, the Recommended reading will be something that challenges your reading skills, in other topics it is something interesting. The recommended reading is NOT assessed in this subject. These readings are for you to take on if you are excited by the material and want to go a little further, or are looking for a bit more of a challenge. Please do NOT undertake the recommended reading if you are struggling with the Required Reading.

Further Reading: The “further reading” is where I have put other reading that is either from interesting books and book chapter that are from or are key sociological texts in the field (NB: some theorists do not write specifically about communities, and so you will need to extrapolate the theory to what you have learned in your previous reading). The further reading should NOT be undertaken if you struggle to understand the Required reading. Further reading can be done to further your sociological study of a topic. You may choose to read only from the required reading or the recommended reading, if you find a particular topic stimulating you may choose to read all the material and explore the authors listed further. Some further reading is entire books. Where this occurs, they will need to be borrowed from the library either in hard copy or as eBooks.
NB: When it comes to writing your final essay, I suggest you undertake to do all the required, and as much of the recommended and further reading as possible on the relevant topic and theory (your essay is about putting two topics together – one from the case study section, and one from the theory section) before conducting your own literature search. When being marked on your “independent research” (a criteria in your essays) you will need to find other work not in the reading guide at all. When being marked for your understanding of the “subject material” (also a criteria in your essay) you will need to show your understanding of the required reading to achieve a pass on that part of the criteria. Higher marks will be awarded (on this criteria) for comprehension of the recommended and further reading sections.
• Part 1 – Introduction
These topics question the notion of community and how communities are studied sociologically. Study guides and recorded lectures focus on the sociological foundations of sociologies of community and the study topics are broken into:
– Topic 1: Introduction to community analysis, questions the definition of community and what constitutes a community.
– Topic 2: Methodologies in community analysis, examines ways in which communities have been examined using quantitative and qualitative research strategies.

Part 2 – Sociological Theory of Community
In this part the subject asks you to engage with key sociological ideas and concepts (theories) in the context of community. The study guide and lectures outline the key sociological idea in each topic and how the concept has been applied to studies of community. The topics in this section are:
– Topic 3, Government and governance: We look at the ways in which communities are organised internally and externally.
– Topic 4, Inequality and the paradox of community: This topic takes the idea of organising communities to a different level. On the one hand we look at class, race, gender and sexuality, and on the other how sociology has understood the inclusion and exclusion of people and groups.
– Topic 5, Communion and cohesion: Here we look at two notions that are sometimes thought of as mutually exclusive and argues that each has its own value to communities in different contexts
– Topic 6, Social capital: Social capital is one of the most well researched and used theories in community studies and development. The idea is often presented so that it looks like a simple answer to many of the problems of community. In my lecture, I challenge this idea by suggesting (rightly or wrongly) that social capital cannot solve all our problems.
– Topic 7, Community participation and social change: This is the first of two topics that takes us into ideas about how communities grow, develop and change. The focus in this topic is social change.
– Topic 8, Growth machines and economic development: In this topic we focus on the idea of economic development through the particular lens of Harvey Molotch’s idea of the “growth machine”. In the lecture of this week, the idea of a growth machine is challenged by the potential of communities to grow economically using internal resources.

Part 3: Case Studies and application of theory
Finally, case studies of particular areas are presented. In this section the study notes will help you to bring your questioning of the nature of communities, and your new understanding of sociological concepts into particular contexts of concern for sociologists of community. In each topic there are 2 Required readings that we take as two different case studies. In the lecture each reading is examined and discussed in terms of how sociological theory we have already studied can explain and explore the case study. This part of the subject is about applying the theory we have been learning to specific contexts and events.
In the summer session (201590) it is advised that you read all the Required reading in the two weeks as suggested in the study guide below. Due to the shorter session, and to allow summer session students to have as close to an equivalent experience as possible we advise you do Topics 9 and 10 in one week and Topics 11 and 12 in another. In this last part of the subject, you may choose to focus your energies in the final week of the session on the case you have chosen to analyse and evaluate for your final assignment.
– Topic 9, rural communities: The first case outlines the way in which families new to areas find themselves operating. The second case shows how young people in rural communities manage. These cases give us an opportunity to ask the question of whether a community is good for everyone (the notions of communion, cohesion and inequality are pertinent).
– Topic 10, Environment and communities: This topic examines the intersection of community and environment. The first case is one where a community have challenged ideas about environmental sustainability by pulling together and reimagining the environment around them (theories of governance, social capital, communion and cohesion, and community participation). In the second case study, we go to Bosnia and Herzigovina where a community tried to solve the problem of coal-ash pollution. In this case the community challenge inherent norms and values and we have an opportunity to look at theories of community participation, governance (particular the structure/agency debate) and social change. In the study guide for this topic, I introduce the notion of environmental justice, a burgeoning area of research that links the ideas of social justice, social inequality and environmental sustainability.
– Topic 11, Work in and for communities: The first case in this topic is about the challenge of finding a balance between the market, the state and local grass roots organising. In our application of theory, we will look at the growth machine, questions of social change and governance. In the second case study, we take issue with the idea of work as paid. In this case we unpack the question of what volunteering lends to communities, again invoking ideas about whether it is external governments, internal governance, or local participation that brings about economic and social change.
– Topic 12, The influence of technology and the online age: In this topic, we look at first the case of our daily lives online as part of our sense of identity. Here we have an opportunity to go right back to the beginning of the subject and ask what community is, how we practice community and what issues there are for inclusion, exclusion, governance and social change. In the second case study, we look specifically at Community informatics and the way in which technology shapes communication. Again we are applying theories of self governance, economic development and social change.
The advent of the virtual world and our increasing engagement with it is a good place to summarise our learning about communities and the sociological analysis of them. In our summary lecture I look into whether the advent of the online community and the increases in technology will change the nature of communities. There seems to be a kind of transformatory power in the online community that challenges our taken-for-granted understanding about government, governance, cohesion, social inequality, participation and the notion of community itself. Rheingold’s(2000) notion of the virtual community is one book that stimulates our thinking in this area especially in terms of the changes communities might face as a result of technology. The virtual and technological community is a good case to track back through the ideas presented in the subject and consider them again in light of ideas about where the notion of community might be headed, and so this topic takes both the case of online and future communities, as well as serving as a summary of the subject.

A note about the supplementary material. The first set of supplementary notes accompanies topic 1. In this sets of notes (and lectures), this is explained in more detail through an introduction to sociological thought from the modernist and structuralist perspectives (Marx, Weber and Durkheim in particular). The second set of supplementary notes (and accompanying lecture) is an introduction to more advanced and recent sociological theory. It takes us through the post structuralist and postmodernist thinkers who challenge the early sociologists with respect to structure (systems of norms) and agency (our capacity to act independently), as well as how society is organised. The “main” lectures and study guides focus in more depth on the nature of the ideas presented. It is worth noting that ALL the study guide notes and lectures are underpinned by key sociological issues (power and normative order) and perspectives (modernism, structuralism, constructionism, postmodernism and poststructuralism).


Session Week Week Commencing Topic Reading
Introduction to Sociology of Community and Sociological Analysis of Communities
1 29 February 2016 Topic 1 – Community Analysis, What is community? Required Reading
1. Bruhn, John G. (2011). “Conceptions of Community: Past and Present”. In The Sociology of Community Connections. Springer. Dordrecht. pp.29-46 (Chapter 2). (eBook available in CSU library)
2. Eipper, C. (1997). “Suburbia: the thread and the promise,” In Kellehear, A. Social self global culture: an introduction to sociological ideas (ed), Oxford University Press. pp.81-90. (Scanned copy available in “Resources” on SOC308 Interact 2 site).

Recommended Reading
No recommended reading for this topic. Check instead the supplementary notes (and lectures) about the foundation sociological theories and more recent sociological theories.

Further Reading
• Bruhn, J.G. (2011). The sociology of community connections. Springer, Dordrecht. (eBook available in CSU library)
2 7 March 2016 Topic 2 – Research in community

Online meetings (Q&A about assessment):
– Tuesday 8 March, 8-9.30pm
– Friday 11 March, 10-11.30am Required Reading
1. Kayrooz, C. and C. Trevitt. (2005). “Research and its context”. In Research in Organizations and Communities: Tales from the real world. Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest. pp.3-17. (eReserve)
2. Kayrooz, C. and C. Trevitt. (2005). “Appendix 1: the range of theoretical perspectives in Research”. In Research in Organizations and Communities: Tales from the real world. Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest. pp.323-324. (eReserve)

Recommended Reading
1. Prus, Robert. (2010). ‘Ethnographic comparisons, complexities and conceptualities: generic social processes and the pragmatic accomplishment of group life,’
2. Letherby, G., Brady, G., and G. Brown. (2007). “Working with the Community: Research and Action.” In Clay, C., Madden, M. and L. Potts. Towards understanding community: people and places. Palgrave MacMillan, Houndsmills. pp.123-136. (eReserve)
Further Reading
• Matthews, B. and L. Ross (2010). Research methods: a practical guide for the social sciences. Pearson Longman, Harlow. (this is the SOC205 text book)
• Stoecker, R. (2005). Research methods for community change: a project based approach. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks.
Assessment 1: 500-750 word essay
Due 18 March 2016 11.59pm in EASTS
Sociological Theories of Community
3 14 March 2016 Topic 3
Government and Governance Required Reading
1. Gray, I. and P. Sinclair.. (2005). ‘Local leaders in a global setting: dependency and resistance in
regional New South Wales and Newfoundland,’ Sociologia Ruralis, 45 (1/2),37-52.
2. Hess, M. and D. Adams. (20 “Localism in contemporary public management”. In Smyth, P., Reddel, T. And A. Jones. Community and local governance in Australia. UNSW Press, Sydney. pp226-244. (eBook available in CSU library)
Recommended Reading
• Herbert-Cheshire, L. (2003). “Translating policy: power and action in Australia’s country towns.” Sociologia Ruralis, 43(4), pp.454-473.
• DeSena, J.N. (1994). “Local gatekeeping practices and residential segregation,” Sociological Inquiry, 64(3), 307-321.

Further Reading
• Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. Vintage books, New York. (Available as eBook in CSU library)
• Foucault, M. (2003). The essential Foucault: selections from essential works of Foucault, 1954-1984. Edited by Paul Rabinow and Nikolas Rose. New Press, New York.
• Gray, I. (1991). Politics in place: social power relations in an Australian country town. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

4 21 March 2016 Topic 4
Inequality and the paradox of community: Inclusion and exclusion Required Reading
• Bruhn, J.G. (2011). “Communities of exclusion and excluded communities: barriers to neighboring.” The sociology of community connections (2ed). Springer. Dordrecht. pp.143-166. (Chapter 7). (eBook available in CSU library)
• Dorling, D. (2010). “ ‘Exclusion is necessary’: excluding people from society.” In Injustice: why social inequality persists. The Policy Press, Bristol. pp.91-144 (Chapter 4). (eBook available in CSU library)

Recommended Reading
• Bowles, S. and H. Gintis. (2000). Excerpts from “Recasting egalitarianism: New rules for markets, states and communities.” The Good Society, 9(3), 9-15.

• Madden, M. (2007). “Justice within and between communities.” In Clay, C.J., Madden, M. and L. Potts. Towards understanding community: people and places. Palgrave MacMillan, Houndsmills. pp.73-84. (eReserve)

Further Reading

• Habibis, D. (2009). Social inequality in Australia: discourses, realities and futures. (This is the SOC102 text book)
• Schuerkens, U. (2010). Globalization and transformations of social inequality. Routledge, New York.
5 28 March 2016 Communion and Cohesion Required Reading

1. Gray, L., Stehlik, D., Lawrence, G., and H. Bulis. (1998). “Community, communion and drought in rural Australia,” Journal of the Community Development Society, 29(1), pp.23-37.
2. Bell, C. and H. Newby. (1976). “Community, communion, class and community action: The social sources of the new urban politics,” In Herbert, D. and R Johnson. Social areas in cities (eds), Wiley: London. pp.189-207. (Scanned copy available in “Resources” on SOC308 Interact 2 site).

Recommended Reading
• Chui, E. (2008). “Lessons Unlearned – planning disaster and community anomie.” Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, 18(2), 59-71.
– Whitford, M. and L. Ruhanen. (2013). “Indigenous Festivals and Community Development: A sociocultural analysis of an Australian Indigenous Festival.” Event Management, 17, 49-61

Further Reading

• Ratcliffe, P. and I. Newman. (2011). Promoting Social cohesion: Implications for policy and evaluation. The Policy Press, Portland. (eBook available in CSU library)
• Wetherell, M., Laflèche, M. and R. Berkeley. (2007). Identity, ethnic diversity and community cohesion. SAGE, Los Angeles. (eBook available in CSU library)
6 3 April 2016 Social Capital Required Reading

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). Measuring social capital: An Australian framework and indicators (Cat. no. 1378.0). Canberra, Australia: ABS. Chapters2 and 3.

2. Greeley, A. (1997). “Coleman revisited: religious structures as a source of social capital.” The American Behavioural Scientist, 40(5), 587-594.

Recommended Reading
• Stoecker, R. (2004). “the mystery of the missing social capital and the ghost of social structure: why community development can’t win,” Community based organisations: the intersection of social capital and local context in contemporary urban society. Wayne State University Press, Michigan. pp.53-65. (Scanned copy available in “Resources” on SOC308 Interact 2 site).
• Rasmussen, C.M., Armstrong, J., and S.A. Chazdon. (2011). “Bridging Brown county: captivating social capital as a means to community change.” Journal of Leadership Education, 10(1), 63-82.

Further Reading
• Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. Simon & Schuster, New York.
• Field, J. (2008). Social Capital. Routledge, London. (eBook available in CSU library)
Mid session break 11 April 2016 – 22 April 2016
7 25 April 2016 Topic 7
Participation and social change Required Reading
1. Ledwith, M. (2005). “Collective action for change”. In Community Development: a critical approach. The Policy Press, Portland. pp.97-130. (eReserve)
2. Shiffman, J. (2002). “The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state.” Social Science & Medicine, 54(8), 1199-1214.

Recommended Reading
• Draper, A.K., Hewitt, G., and S. Rifkin. (2010). “Chasing the dragon: developing indicators for the assessment of community participation in health programmes.” Social Science & Medicine (71(6), 1102-1109.
• Ringstad, R., Leyva, C.L., Garcia, J. and K. Jasek-rysdahl. (2012). “Creating space for marginalized voices: re-focusing service learning on community change and social justice.” Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(3), 268-283.

Further Reading
• Daim, M.S., Bakri, A.F., Kamarudin, H., and S.A. Zakaria. (2012). “Being neighbour to a national park: are we ready for community participation?” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 211-220.
• Defilippis, J. (2010). Contesting Community: The Limits and potential of local organizing. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick. (eBook available in CSU library)

8 2 May 2016 Topic 8
The Growth machine and economic development

Online Meeting about upcoming assessment:
– Tuesday 2 May, 8-9.30pm
– Friday 6 May, 10-11.30am Required Reading
• Molotch, H. (1976). “The city as a Growth Machine: Toward a political economy of place.” American Journal of Sociology, 82(2), 309-332.
• Anglin, R. V. (2011). “Searching for sustainable community economic development.” In Promoting Sustainable Local and Community Economic Development. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton. pp.23-38 (chapter 2). (eBook available in CSU library)

Recommended Reading
• Di Domenico, M.L., Haugh, H. and P. Tracey. (2010). “Social bricolage: theorizing social value
creation in social enterprises.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 681-703.
• Jerome, A. (2011). “Infrastructure, economic growth and poverty reduction in Africa.” Journal of Infrastructure Development, 3(2), 127-151.

Further Reading
• Tambunan, T. (2007). “Development of SME and women entrepreneurs in a developing country: the Indionesian Story.” Small Enterprise Research: The Journal of SEAANZ, 15(2), pp.31-51.
• Anglin, R.V. (2011). Promoting Sustainable Local and Community Economic Development. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton. (eBook available in CSU library)
Assessment 2 – Online Test to be completed between 9am Monday 9 May 2016 and Sunday 15 May 2016 at 11.59pm in Interact 2 (50%)
Case Studies: applying theory
9 9 May 2016 Rural communities Required Reading
1. Sampson, K., Goodrich, C. and R. McManus. (2011). “Rural families, industry change and social
capital: some considerations for policy.” Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. 37, 97-110.

2. Bourke, Lisa. (2003). ‘Toward understanding youth suicide in an Australian rural community’, 57, Social Science and Medicine, pp.2355-2365

Recommended Reading
• Gray, I. and G. Lawrence (2001). “Neoliberalism, individualism and prospects for regional renewal.” Rural Society, 11(3), 283-299.
• Gregory, R. (2005). “Whispers on the wind: the small quiet voice of rural health and welfare practice.” Rural Society, 15(3), pp.267-275.

Further Reading
• Higgins, V. and G. Lawrence. (2005). Agricultural governance: globalization and the new politics of regulation. Routledge, London.
• Raynolds, L. (2012). “Fair Trade: social regulation in global food markets.” Journal of Rural Studies, 28(3), pp.276-287.
10 16 May 2016 Topic 10
Environment and Community engagement Required Reading
1. Prolia, S. (2011). “Improving an urban sustainability environment through community participation: the case of Emilia-Romagna region”. Procedia Engineering, 21, 1118-1123.
2. Broto, V.A. and C. Carter. (2010). “Environmental Justice within Local Discourses about coal-ash pollution in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.” In Pavlich, D. Managing Environmental Justice. Rodopi, Amsterdam. pp.199-222. (eBook available in CSU library)
Recommended Reading
• Peat, K. (2007). “The ideal of a sustainable community, 2006.” Clay, C.J., Madden, M. and L. Potts. Towards understanding community: people and places. Palgrave MacMillan, Houndsmills. pp.97-110. (eReserve)
• Wilson, G. (2012). “Conceptualizing community resilience at the intersection between economic, social and environmental capital.” In Community Resilience and Environmental Transitions. Earthscan, London. pp.14-25 (Chapter 2.2). (eBook available in CSU library)

Further Reading
• Adamkiewicz, G., Zota, A.R., Fabian, M.P., Chahine, T., Julien, R., Spengler, J.D. and J.I.Levy. (2011). “Moving environmental justice indoors: understanding structural influences on residential exposure patterns in low-income communities.” The American Journal of Public Health, 101(12), S238-S246.
• Steady, F.C. (2009). Environmental justice in the new millennium: global perspectives on race, ethnicity, and human rights. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
11 23 May 2016 Topic 11
Work in and for communities

Online meeting about upcoming assignment:
– Tuesday 24 May, 8-9.30pm
– Friday 27 May, 10-11.30am Required Reading
1. Orchard, L. (2001). “Market, State and Civil Society: the search for a new balance.” In Dow, G. and R. Parker. Business, Work, and Community: into the New Millenium. Oxford University Press, Melbourne. pp.231-244. (eReserve)
2. Taylor, R.F. (2005). “Rethinking voluntary work.” In Pettinger, L., Parry, J., Taylor, R. and M. Glucksmann, A new sociology of work. Blackwell Publishing, Malden. pp.119-135. (eReserve)

Recommended Reading
• Martin, B. (2001). “The changing experience of the middle class.” In Dow, G. and R. Parker. Business, Work, and Community: into the New Millenium. Oxford University Press, Melbourne. pp.217-230. (eReserve)
• McKibben, B. (2007).“The Wealth of Communities”. In Deep Economy: the wealth of communities and the durable future. Times Books, New York. pp.129-176. (eReserve)

Further Reading
• Oppenheimer, M. (2008). Volunteering: why we can’t survive without it. UNSW Press, Sydney. (eBook and hard copy in CSU library)
• Skinner, N. (2012). Australian work and life index 2012: work-life balance in South Australia. Centre for work and life, University of South Australia.
12 30 May 2016 Topic 12
The influence of technology and the online age Required Reading
1. Tonteri, L., Kosonen, M., Ellonen, H., & A. Tarkiainen. (2011). “Antecedents of an experienced sense of virtual community.” Computers in Human Behaviour, 27(6), 2215-2223.
2. Shin, Y. and D. Shin. (2012). “Community Informatics and the New Urbanism: incorporating information and communication technologies into planning integrated urban communities.” Journal of Urban Technology, 19(1), 23-42.

Recommended Reading
• Rheingold, H. (2000). “Daily Life in Cyberspace: how the computerized counterculture built a new kind of place.” In The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts. pp.25-56. (eReserve)
• Ellis, D., Oldridge, R. and A. Vasconelos. (2004). “Community and Virtual Community”, Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 38(1), 145-186.

Further Reading
• Fernback, J. (2005). “Information technology, networks and community voices: social inclusion for urban regeneration.” Information, Communication and Society, 8(4), 482-502.

• Rheingold, H. (2000). The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts.

Summary and conclusion of the subject

Assessment 3 – 2000 word Essay

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