Class relations in United States during the late 19th and early 20th century Class Identity in America

The Class relations in United States during the late 19th and early 20th century

Class Identity in America

Defining our terms: Class versus Wealth

American definitions of class

Identifying upper, middle, and lower class

Gender roles defined by class: Masculinity, Manliness, and Femininity

Conceptualizing the ?American Dream?

Is the ?American Dream? gender biased?

Definitions of wealth




Mechanisms of controlling wealth

Business: Consumerism and Marketing

Government: Regulation, taxation, and protection

Workers: Unionization and labor rights

Image as cultural control

Identifying a criminal class

The Civil War was fought over wealth

Analyzing the Civil War as a class based conflict

Competing definition of wealth

Regulating the plantation complex

Urban working class versus slavery

Wartime economies

Northern development and expansion

Mass production and the military industrial complex

Innovation and technology: New weapons of war

Urban working class identity: The case of the New York Draft Riots

Southern Wartime industry

New Industrial centers

Women and the war effort

Southern innovators: ?Creative Minds in Desperate Times?

Planning for an economic reconstruction

Federal Occupation and Military Governors

Restoration of the South

The Five Military Districts and contracting reconstruction

Carpetbaggers: The northern economic invasion

Southern response

Ulysses S. Grant selling the South

Ku Klux Klan defends the traditional South

Criminal elements amidst the chaos: The Jesse James Gang versus U.S. Marshalls

Identifying a ?Scalawag?

The Freedmen”s Bureau: Making freedmen American workers

The promise of ?40 Acres and a Mule? versus reality of sharecropping

Key Terms

New York draft riots



Ku Klux Klan

Freedmen”s Bureau

?40 Acres and a Mule?

Ulysses S. Grant

Rutherford B. Hayes

James Longstreet

Jubal Early

Robert E. Lee

Jesse James Gang

The Gilded Age

Creating ?Big Business?: Themes of Industrial America

Post Civil War industrialization

Government and business

Labor and industry: Laissez-faire, Social Darwinism and Positivism

Meet the cast

Jay Gould: Land speculation and the Railroad Tycoon

What did the railroad mean for Americans?

Government support

Revolutionizing labor

Andrew Carnegie: Owning the means of production through vertical integration

Technology and innovation: The Bessemer process

Immigrant wealth

?Gospel of Wealth?

John D. Rockefeller: Limiting enterprise through horizontal monopoly

Establishing a ?standard?

Trusts and holding companies

J. P. Morgan: Keeping the American economy in trust

America”s new banking

Financial monopolies

Pinkerton National Detective Agency versus Wild Bunch

Government as a big business

Conflicts of Interest?

Sectional Politics

Party Politics

National corruption and the spoils system

Factionalized Republican party

City Politics: The case of Tammany Hall

Labor in the Gilded Age

Immigration and labor migration

Urban labor: A new working class

Attempts for Unionization and political organization

Populist Party

Early strikes and worker riots

Knights of Labor and the AFL

Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike

Failure of Gilded Age labor reforms



Accusations of socialism

Key Terms


Social Darwinism


J.P. Morgan

John D. Rockefeller

Jay Gould

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Andrew Carnegie

?Gospel of Wealth?

Bessemer process

Standard Oil

Vertical integration

Horizontal integration



Holding companies

William M. Tweed


Spoils system

President Rutherford B. Hayes

President James Garfield

Assassination of James Garfield

President Chester A. Arthur

President Grover Cleveland

West Virginia Coal Miner Strike (1877)

Great Railroad Strike (1877)

Homestead Strike (1892)

Eugene V. Debs

Pullman Strike (1892)

American Railway Union

Pinkerton National Detective Agency

American Federation of Labor

Knights of Labor

Wild Bunch (1890s)

Middle Class Response to the Gilded Age

Social Activism

Social reform and women”s rights

Frances Willard and American Temperance (WCTU)

Women”s suffrage campaign

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the (NWSA)

Susan B. Anthony and the (AWSA)

Trial for ?Illegal Voting?

Missionary movements

Creating a social gospel

Reform Darwinism

Assessing the success of reform

A cultural response

Literature of Jack London and Upton Sinclair

War and the popular press

Yellow Journalism

Muckraking political press

Progressive Era Politics

Teddy Roosevelt, a champion for reform

Offering America a Square deal

Roosevelt the Trust Buster

Leading American Conservationism

William Howard Taft: A hand picked successor

A reluctant politician

Break with the Republican norm

Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments

Election of 1912

A split in the Republican Party

?New Nationalism? versus the ?New Freedom?

Wilson as a Progressive?

A reversal in labor gains

Alienating the conservatives

Surviving the election of 1916

Key Terms


Trust Busting

Theodore Roosevelt

Cult of Domesticity

Women”s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

American Women”s Suffrage Association (AWSA)

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)


Frances Willard

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Susan B. Anthony

1873 Trial for ?illegal voting?

Social gospel

Reform Darwinism
Jack London

Upton Sinclair
The Jungle

Sixteenth Amendment (ratified 1913)

Seventeenth Amendment (ratified 1913)

Progressive Party

War and peace time definitions of class

20th century standards of the ?American Dream?

Crisis defines success through conformity

Wartime economies and unity

Employing a full workforce

Modernizing America

Marketing patriotism

Discontent gives rise to resistance

Dramatic economic shift from war to peace time

Veteran”s issues and social radicalism

Marketing criminal elements

Arming 1 million doughboys: Economy of the First World War

Selective Service Act and the volunteer army

Demonstrating America”s military capacities

Marketing the war: Uncle Sam and the soldier”s image

Demographic effects of the war: Second great migration

White collar women in the war effort

Post-war reactions

Labor riots and the Red Scare

Women”s movement continued: Birth Control, voting rights, and white collar employment

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Amendments

?A return to normalcy?

Marketing during the ?roaring 20s?

Bootlegging, public enemies, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Great Depression: Problems to address

Crash of the stock market signals a crisis

Homelessness and disillusion

Bank crisis

Agricultural crisis: Inflation, the Dust bowl, and the laws of supply and demand

FDR”s New Deal reins in the resistance: Was this a solution to America”s problems?

Public Projects

America”s Welfare system

Bank Holiday

Agricultural incentives and sharecropping

Labor organization under Roosevelt: International Brotherhood of Teamsters

20th and 21st amendments (1933): America needs a drink

World War 2 demands conformity

Ford Motor Company

A new Income tax

Rosie the Riveter: Redefining gender roles

Maintaining control in the ?nuclear? age

Image of 1950s family

Middle class ideal

Social welfare: Truman”s ?Fair Deal?

National security: Eisenhower and the ?Federal Highway Act?

Working class power

Union linked to mob interests

Gambling, prostitution, and the founding of Las Vegas

Havana mob and the Cuban Revolution

Perspectives on foreign policy

John F. Kennedy”s Alliance for Progress

International response to American intervention

Vietnam War as an identity crisis

Social issues turn inward

A black man”s place in Lyndon Johnson”s ?Great Society?

Women”s ?liberation? movement

Where do we stand now?

Key Terms

18th Amendment

19th Amendment

20th Amendment

21st Amendment

22nd Amendment

The Red Scare

Warren G. Harding

Calvin Coolidge

?The Great Migration?

Herbert Hoover

Black Tuesday

Dust Bowl

Bank Crisis

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Indian Reorganization Act

Social Security Act

Election of 1940

A Bank Holiday

American Welfare State

International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT)

Lend Lease Act (1940)

Rosie the Riveter

Double V Campaign

Harry Truman

Fair Deal

Marshall Plan

Federal Highway Act (1956)


America”s Containment policy

Havana Mob

Las Vegas Mob

Charlie ?Lucky? Luciano

Jimmy Hoffa

Meyer Lansky

Robert Kennedy

John F. Kennedy

?Alliance for Progress?

Cuba Embargo

Lyndon Johnson

?Great Society?

Richard Nixon


George W. Bush

Barack Obama


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