Checklist of what to include for the most common information sources Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 8th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sound Playing, Synthesis, Visualisation and Processing App;

Harvard Referencing

Checklist of what to include for the most common information sources

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 8th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Referencing in your text
When you summarise, refer to, or quote from an author’s work in your document, you need to acknowledge your source in the text. When using Harvard, you do this by

putting the author’s name, and publication year.

Example: (Ayra, 2003)

In the reference list, you then put the full details of the reference to enable a reader to trace the source of the information that you have used:

Example: Ayra, C. (2003) Design of structural elements. 2nd ed. London: Spon Press

Direct quotation
When you use the exact words from the text, you should use double quotation marks and the page number.

Example: “At the crux of any discussion of what happened during the sixties, one inevitably comes up against the word revolution” (Green, 1999, p.17)

Long quotations
For long quotations of more than 4 lines, you should indent the quotation and there is no requirement for quotation marks.

Reference list or bibliography?
A reference list is a list of all the information sources that you have cited in your text. A bibliography is a list of items that you have read, and that have

informed your thinking, but not specifically cited in your assignment. Check the requirements for each module with your tutor. Your list should be completed in

alphabetical order by author’s surname regardless of the format of the information source.
Author rules
The following provides guidance for dealing with common referencing queries about authors:

Single and multiple authors – referencing in the text
If there are one, two or three authors, all surnames should be given before the date.

Example: Silvertown and Charlesworth (2001) suggest….

If there are more than three authors, provide  the first surname followed by et al. (in italics).

Example: ….was proved by Nestler et al. (2001)

In the reference list, all authors should be listed:

Nestler, E.J., Hyman, E.S., Singh, J. and Malenka, R.C. (2001) Molecular neuropharmacology: a foundation for clinical neuroscience. New York: McGraw-Hill

Author as organisation
If an organisation’s name is given instead of a personal name, then list this as the author

Example: University of Wolverhampton (2014)

Author has published 2 or more items in the same year
If two or more documents are by the same author(s) in the same year, add lower-case letters after the year (a, b, c, etc.) to distinguish between them in your text and

in your reference list.

Example:
Morris (1999a) concludes that…

Authors name not given
For documents with no named author, you may use Anon. in place of the author. However, you may need to question whether or not the resource is suitable for academic

work.

Alternatively, you may use the title of the document in your text. If you do this then you should do it for all anonymous works in your list.

Example:
In text citation: Japan: a bilingual atlas. (1991).
In reference list: Japan: a bilingual atlas. (1991). Tokyo: Kodansha International.

Secondary referencing (authors quoting other authors)
Sometimes you may want to reference an author who is citing another information source that you haven’t seen. You need to make it clear that you have not seen the

original source yourself.

Within your text, you cite the original author, followed by the author of the secondary source.

Example:
“It will not require violence to succeed, and it cannot be successfully resisted by violence” (Reich, 1971, in Singer, 1997, p.90).

In your reference list at the end, you list the book you actually saw:

Singer, P. (1997) How are we to live? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Citations deconstructed

All the information for your reference can be found on the copyright page of the book (normally 2 or 3  pages into the book):

All the information for your reference can normally be found on the first page of the journal article:

Books
Example: Book with one author
In text citation:
According to Arya (2003, p.23) the most important…….

In your reference list:
Arya, C. (2003) Design of structural elements. 2nd ed. London: Spon Press.

Example: Book with two or three authors
In text citation:
Silvertown and Charlesworth (2001) suggested….

Reference List:
Silvertown, J. and Charlesworth, D. (2001) Introduction to plant population biology. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Example: Book with more than three authors
In text citation:
This was proved by Nestler et al. (2001).

In your reference list:
Nestler, E.J., Hyman, E.S., Singh, J. and Malenka, R.C. (2001) Molecular neuropharmacology: a foundation for clinical neuroscience. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Example: Electronic-book
In text citation:
In his analysis Gerring (2007, pp. 41-49)…….

In your reference list:
Gerring, J. (2007) Case study research: principles and practices [online]. Cambridge: CUP [Accessed 14 August 2008]. Available at: <http://www.myilibrary.com>.

Example: Translated book
In text citation:
In his analysis Schweitzer (1911)…….

In your reference list:
Schweitzer, A. (1911) J.S. Bach. (Translated by E. Newman). Reprint, New York: Dover Press, 1966.
Tip:
Only state the edition if it is a second edition or later.
Edited books
Example: Book with editor
In text citation:
This formation was examined in Priest (1987).

In your reference list:
Priest, W. (ed.) (1987) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm.

Example: Chapter within an edited book
In text citation:
According to Saville (1987)…..

In your Reference List:
Saville, N. (1987) Doctors. in Priest, W. (ed.) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm, pp. 11-23.

Journal Articles
Example: Journal articles with one author
In text citation:
Lambert (2003) argued that…….

In your reference list:
Lambert, P. (2003) Armed conflict: a pacifist experience and the implications for counselling. Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 3(2),

pp.75-83.

Example: Journal articles with more than three authors
In text citation:
A review by Bowlin et al. (2003)….

In your reference list:
Bowlin, W.F., Simpson, H., Renner, C.J. and Rives, J.M. (2003) A DEA study of gender equity in executive compensation. Journal of the Operation Research Society, 54

(7), pp.751-7.

Example: Electronic-journal articles
In text citation:
Whilst Deering (2004) reported…….

In your reference list:
Deering, T. (2004) The Perfect Machine. Construction Digest [online]. 79(23) pp.12-13 [Accessed 31 Jan 2006]. Available at:<http://ebscohost.com>.
Tip:
Some journals may not have volume or issue numbers, in these cases state the date in place of the volume or issue. E.g. 26 June 2008

Newspaper Articles

Example: Printed newspaper articles
In text citation:
House prices fell by 2.1% last month (Smith, 2008)…….

In your reference list:
Smith, D. (2008) House price markets. The Times. 26 June, p.25.

Example: Online newspaper articles
In text citation:
Graduates were offered financial guidance (Taylor and Black, 2009)

In your reference list:
Taylor, M. and Black, B. (2009) Financial incentives to tempt graduates. The Times [online] 14 February, p.14 [Accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at:

<http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/article6558.ece>

Tip:
Some newspaper articles may not have an author, in these cases name the newspaper in place of an author.

Conferences
Example: Full conference proceedings
In text citation:
The conference (Institute for Small Business Affairs, 2002)…….

In your reference list:
Institute for Small Business Affairs (2002) Small firms: adding a spark: the 25th ISBA national small firms policy conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen 15-17

November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs.

Example: Individual conference paper
In text citation:
Lloyd (2002) highlighted…….

In your reference list:
Lloyd, S. (2002) Capturing the consumer. Small firms: adding a spark: the 25th ISBA national small firms policy conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen 15-17

November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp.132-138.

Example: Online full conference proceedings
In text citation:
The conference (IEEE Computer Society, 2009)…….

In your reference list:
IEEE Computer Society. (2009)  Cover Art:14th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems [online]. University of Potsdam, Potsdam 2-4

June. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society. [Accessed 14 June 2009]. Available at: <http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICECCS.2009.57>.

Example: Online conference paper
In text citation:
A recent paper (Pellizzoni et al. 2009)…….

In your reference list:
Pellizzoni, R., Franks, S., Sha, L. and Bradford. R.M. (2009) ASIIST: Application Specific I/O Integration Support Tool for Real-Time Bus Architecture Designs. Cover

Art:14th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems [online]. University of Potsdam, Potsdam 2-4 June. [Accessed 14 June 2009]. Available

at: <http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICECCS.2009.57>.

Official Reports

Example: Command Paper
In text citation:
The latest advice (Department for Education and Skills, 2005)….

In your reference list:
Department for Education and Skills (2005) Higher standards, better schools for all, more choice for parents and pupil. Cm. 6677. London: The Stationery Office.

Example: Government Report
In text citation:
The NHS states (National Health Service, 2003)….

In your reference list:
National Health Service (2003) Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? London: National Health Service.

Example: Online Report
In text citation:
The latest advice (Department of Health, 2007)….

In your reference list:
Department of Health (2007) Health inequalities: progress and next steps [online]. [Accessed 23 January 2009]. Available at: <http://www.dh.gov.uk/>.

Web pages

Example: Web pages with organisations as authors
In text citation:
The information literacy scheme (CILIP, 2008)…..

In your reference list:
Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) (2008) Information literacy: a definition [online]. [Accessed 7 August 2008]. Available at:

<http://www.cilip.org.uk/policyadvocay/informationliteracy/ definitiondefault.htm>.

Example: Web pages with an individual authors
In text citation:
Yau (2001) provided information…..

In your reference list:
Yau, T. (2001) Dragon Project [online]. [Accessed 4 August 2002]. Available at: <http://www.geocities.com/dragonproject2000/prt0>.

Tip:
If the website has no author you should use the site’s URL. However, if a web page has no author you might question whether or not it is a suitable source to use in

your  academic work. If a website has no date use the author and (no date); be sure that the information is suitable and not out of date though. Some websites may give

a date range (E.g. University of Wolverhampton, 1999-2005); in this instance always use the latest date given.

Technology
Example: IEEE Conference proceedings
In text citation:
The conference (IEEE Computer Society, 2009)…….

In your reference list:
IEEE Computer Society. (2009)  Cover Art:14th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems [online]. University of Potsdam, Potsdam 2-4

June. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society. [Accessed 14 June 2009]. Available at: <http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICECCS.2009.57>.

Example: Patents
In text citation:
Morris (2000) proposed a solution….

In your reference list:
Morris, P. (2000)  Plastic bag carrier. UK intellectual property office patent no. GB203254 [online]. [Accessed 12 September 2002]. Available at:

<http://www.ipo.gov.uk>.

Example: British Standards
In text citation:
Copper alloys are subject to strict controls (BSI, 2008).

In your reference list:
British Standards Institution (2008) BS EN 1173:2008. Copper and copper alloys. Material condition Designation. London: BSI.

This is what an a-z reference list (a-z by author) would look like. This should be placed at the end of your assignment.

Arya, C. (2003) Design of structural elements. 2nd ed. London: Spon Press.

Bowlin, W.F., Simpson, H., Renner, C.J., and Rives, J.M. (2003) A DEA study of gender equity in executive compensation. Journal of the Operation Research Society, 54

(7), pp.751-7.

British Standards Institution (2008) BS EN 1173:2008. Copper and copper alloys. Material condition Designation. London: BSI.

Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) (2008) Information literacy: a definition [online]. [Accessed 7 August 2008]. Available at:

<http://www.cilip.org.uk/policyadvocay/informationliteracy/ definitiondefault.htm>.

Che, Part one (2008) Directed by S. Soderbergh [DVD]. New York: IFC Films.

Department of Health (2007) Health inequalities: progress and next steps [online]. [Accessed 23 January 2009]. Available at: <http://www.dh.gov.uk/>.

Gerring, J. (2007) Case study research: principles and practices [online]. [Accessed 14 August 2008]. Available at: <http://www.myilibrary.com>.

Lloyd, S. (2002) Capturing the consumer. Small firms: adding a spark: the 25th ISBA national small firms policy conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen 15-17

November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp.132-138.

Smith, D. (2008) House price markets. The Times. 26 June, p.25.

Tele Atlas (2009) Burslem. Google Maps [online]. [Accessed 19 July 2009]. Available at: <http://maps.google.co.uk >.

If you need help with the Harvard referencing system, please do not hesitate to ask the Librarians within your local Learning Centre for assistance. You can also chat

live online to a librarian using our Assist service

Report
You should produce a report of approximately 2500 words (about four pages of A4 using a 12pt. font). This report should contain the following sections:

1. A description of how your application works (supplemented by screenshots) including instructions on how to run it on your chosen platform which is Google Chrome.

2. Application Development. This section should describe your implementation. Programming code and diagrams describing algorithms should be included.

3. Provide answers to the following:
a. What is the sound file named testSoundB.wav?
i. Note: Only a brief paragraph is needed here. Evidence of at least one reference explaining the sound. Use the Harvard referencing system.

b. The spectrogram analysis you implemented in your application is the starting point of some audio search algorithms (e.g. Shazam). Briefly outline the key principles

of these algorithms.
i. Note: A relatively brief explanation is needed, around 1,000 words. However, you should undertake some research and make use of some academic papers. Use the

Harvard referencing system.

4. An analysis of the finished application. Issues that occurred during development and how they were overcome.

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